Noun Spellings

Number & Possession

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Three Rules of Noun Forms:

  1. Sometimes add “s” for plural.
  2. Always add “s” and ‘ (apostrophe) for possessive.
  3. Only add ones.

So, only add only ‘ (apostrophe) if the ending “s” was added to make it plural.

Singular Plural Singular
Possessive
Plural
Possessive
[NOUN] [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s
apple apples apples apples
Mark Marks Marks Marks
Johnson Johnsons Johnsons Johnsons
[NOUN] {}
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +s
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
atlas atlases atlass atlases
boss bosses bosss bosses
marsh marshes marshs marshes
stitch stitches stitchs stitches
fox foxes foxs foxes
potato potatoes potatos potatoes
Jones Joneses Joness Jonses
[NOUN] y [NOUN] y→i +es [NOUN] y +s [NOUN] y→i +es
puppy puppies puppys puppies
[NOUN] {}
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
bay bays bays bays
key key keys keys
boy boy boys boys
 guy guy guys guys
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
child children childs childrens
mouse mice mouses mices
person people persons peoples
a people many peoples a peoples many peoples
money monies
moneys (pre 1970)
moneys monies
moneys (pre 1970)
it they its
(no apostrophe)
their

101 Nouns

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*Key: Anglicized | Regular | Same

Singular Plural Singular
Possessive
Plural
Possessive
[NOUN] [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s
[NOUN] {}
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +s
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] y [NOUN] y→i +es [NOUN] y +s [NOUN] y→i +es
[NOUN] {}
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
aircraft aircraft aircraft’s aircrafts’
alumnus
alumna
alumni
alumnae
alumnus’
alumna’s
alumni’s
alumnae’s
analysis analyses analysis’s analyses’
antenna antennae
antennas
antenna’s antennae’s
antennas’
apex apices
apexes
apex’s apices’
apexes’
appendix appendices
appendixes
appendix’s appendices’
appendixes’
asteroid asteroids asteroid’s asteroids’
axis axes axis’s axes’
bacterium bacteria bacterium’s bacteria’s
basis bases basis’s bases’
bison bison bison’s bison’s
bureau bureaux
bureaus
bureau’s bureaux’s
bureaus’
cactus cacti
cactus
cactuses
cactus’s cacti’s
cactus’s
cactuses’
carriage carriages carriage’s carriages’
château châteaux
châteaus
château’s châteaux’s
châteaus’
child children child’s children’s
codex codices codex’s codices’
comma commas comma’s commas’
comet comets comet’s comets’
concerto concerti
concertos
concerto’s concerti’s
concertos’
crisis crises crisis’s crises’
criterion criteria
criterions
criterion’s criteria’s
criterions’
curriculum curricula
curriculums
curriculum’s curricula’s
curriculums’
datum data datum’s data’s
deer deer
deers
deer’s deer’s
deers’
diagnosis diagnoses diagnosis’s diagnoses’
die dice
dies
die’s dice’s
dies’
dwarf dwarves
dwarfs
dwarf’s dwarves’
dwarfs’
ellipsis ellipses ellipsis’s ellipses’
elk elks elk’s elks’
fish fish
fishes
fish’s fish’s
fishes’
focus foci
focuses
focus’s foci’s
focuses’
foot feet
foot
foot’s feet’s
foot’s
formula formulae
formulas
formula’s formulae’s
formulas’
fungus fungi
funguses
fungus’s fungi’s
funguses’
genus genera
genuses
genus’s genera’s
genuses’
giraffe giraffes giraffe’s giraffes’
goose geese goose’s geese’s
graffito graffiti graffito’s graffiti’s
grouse grouse
grouses
grouse’s grouse’s
grouses’
half halves half’s halves’
hippopotamus hippopotami
hippopotamuses
hippopotamus’s hippopotami’s
hippopotamuses’
hoof hooves
hoofs
hoof’s hooves’
hoofs’
hypothesis hypotheses hypothesis’s hypotheses’
index indices
indexes
index’s indices’
indexes’
Indian Indians Indian’s Indians’
larva larvae
larvas
larva’s larvae’s
larvas’
loaf loaves loaf’s loaves’
locus loci locus’s loci’s
louse lice louse’s lice’s
man men man’s men’s
matrix matrices
matrixes
matrix’s matrices’
matrixes’
a medium media
mediums
a medium’s media’s
mediums’
media media media’s media’s
memorandum memoranda
memorandums
memorandum’s memoranda’s
memorandums’
minutia minutiae minutia’s minutiae’s
moose moose moose’s moose’s
mouse mice mouse’s mice’s
nebula nebulae
nebulas
nebula’s nebulae’s
nebulas’
nucleus nuclei
nucleuses
nucleus’s nuclei’s
nucleuses’
oasis oases oasis’s oases’
octapus octopi
octapuses
octapus’s octopi’s
octapuses’
offspring offspring
offsprings
offspring’s offspring’s
offsprings
opus opera
opuses
opus’s opera’s
opuses’
orange oranges orange’s oranges’
ovum ova ovum’s ova’s
ox oxen
ox
ox’s oxen’s
ox’s
parenthesis parentheses parenthesis’s parentheses’
phenomenon phenomena
phenomenons
phenomenon’s phenomena’s
phenomenons’
phylum phyla phylum’s phyla’s
prognosis prognoses prognosis’s prognoses’
quail quail
quails
quail’s quail’s
quails’
quiz quizzes quiz’s quizzes’
radius radii
radiuses
radius’s radii’s
radiuses’
referendum referenda
referendums
referendum’s referenda’s
referendums’
rhinoceros rhinoceri
rhinoceros
rhinoceroses
rhinoceros’s rhinoceri’s
rhinoceros’s
rhinoceroses’
salmon salmon
salmons
salmon’s salmon’s
salmons’
scarf scarves
scarfs
scarf’s scarves’
scarfs’
self selves self’s selves’
series series series’s series’
sheep sheep sheep’s sheep’s
shrimp shrimp
shrimps
shrimp’s shrimp’s
shrimps’
species species species’s species
stimulus stimuli stimulus’s stimuli’s
tooth teeth tooth’s teeth’s
swine swine swine’s swine’s
syllabus syllabi
syllabuses
syllabus’s syllabi’s
syllabuses’
symposium symposia
symposiums
symposium’s symposia’s
symposiums’
synopsis synopses synopsis’s synopses’
thesis theses thesis’s theses’
thief thieves thief’s thieves’
tooth teeth tooth’s teeth’s
trout trout
trouts
trout’s trout’s
trouts’
tuna tuna
tunas
tuna’s tuna’s
tunas’
vertebra vertebrae
vertebras
vertebra’s vertebrae’s
vertebras
vertex vertices
vertexes
vertex’s vertices’
vertexes’
vortex vortices
vortexes
vortex’s vortices’
vortexes’
wharf wharves
wharf’s
wharf’s wharves’
wharfs’
wife wives wife’s wives’
wolf wolves wolf’s wolves’
woman women woman’s women’s

Grammar Syllabus

Make constant use of Reading, Memorizing, and Vocabulary resources, as much as possible, probably after Phase 1.

Phase 1: Foundations

Simultaneously learn:

  1. Handwriting
  2. Typing with the 88-Word Hannon
  3. Dot 1: Starting Phonics

Phase 2: Basic Grammar

Read from the Dot series daily while covering each grammar topic. The purpose of this Dot series is not to practice reading every form of English usage, but help students be able to read well and speak properly with the least and briefest amount of practice. Each Dot story should be read multiple times.

Dot 2

Grammar:

  • Articles

Application:

  • Reading Spoken Conversation (111 Casual Sentences)
  • *Reading spoken conversation is not an exercise to understand grammar, but merely to understand the concept that what we say can be written and read. Pedagogically, this is a vital early step in reading skill and vocabulary building.

Dot 3

Grammar:

  • Capitalize: First Word, Names
  • Period & Question Mark
  • *While reading Dot 3, play the game: “Look for the question mark”.
  • Noun-Verb-Adjective
  • Subject-Predicate
  • Nominative Case: Subject, Predicate Nominative, Predicate Adjective

Application:

  • Days
  • Months
  • Basic colors
  • Numbers

Dot 4

Grammar:

Application:

  • Relative days/dates/time (yesterday, next year, in two months, etc.)
  • Time of day
  • Intermediate colors
  • Hundred, thousand, million
  • Plus, minus, times, divide
  • Times tables through 13
  • Basic “tens” addition rules (5+8 will have 3, etc.)

Dot 5

Grammar:

  • Yes/No Questions
  • WH Questions (WH Q&A)
  • Contractions
  • Simple Positive/Negative Statements
  • Suffixes (modifiers: comparative, superlative, adverbial)
  • Helping Verbs
  • Suffixes (verbs)
  • Verbs (303 Verbs)
  • Verb forms & patterns (Verb Spellings)

Application:

  • Scheduling conversation
  • Frequency (often, frequently, rarely, never, always, usually, etc.)
  • Discussing colors (matching & clashing, cool/warm, pastels, saturated)
  • Discussing basic Math (arithmetic) & story problem English

Dot 6

Grammar:

  • Modifiers (202 Adjectives)
  • Clauses (one verb each)
  • Dependent vs Independent Clauses
  • Object

Application:

  • Discussing roads, cities, and travel
  • Travel methods
  • Basic geography terms (mountains, rivers, islands, lakes, valleys, volcanoes)
  • Basic letter

Dot 7

Grammar:

  • Adjectives & Adverbs (Adjective Spellings)
  • Prefixes (negation)
  • Accusative Case: Direct Object
  • Dative Case: Indirect Object
  • Personal Pronouns
  • Oblique Case

Application:

  • Countries, oceans, continents, which is where

Dot 8

Grammar:

  • Pronouns & Demonstratives
  • Personal Pronouns (review) (Grammar 0.0 – Introduction)
  • Reflexive Pronouns (Pronouns)
  • Genitive Case: Substance, Origin
  • Dative Case: Involvement, Means
  • Instrumental Case
  • Locative Case

Application:

  • Planets
  • Types of life (plant, bacteria, fungus, mammal, reptile, insect, arachnid)
  • Computer coding talk

Dot 9

Grammar:

  • Interrogative vs Relative Pronouns
  • WH Clauses (WH – Relative and Interrogative Clauses)
  • Ablative vs Lative Case
  • Commas: 3+ item lists, strikable phrases
  • Logical sentences & conjunctions
    (notwithstanding, albeit, nonetheless, anyhow, therefore, accordingly, etc.)

Application:

  • Writing addresses

Phase 3: Noun Case

Noun Case
Noun Case: Nominative, Vocative
Noun Case: Accusative, Dative
Noun Case: Ablative, Lative
Noun Case: Locative, Instrumental
Noun Case: Genitive
Noun Case: Oblique
Genitive Measurables (a bottle of, a cup of, a piece of)

Phase 4: Style & Verbs

Verbs: Linking vs Action
Verbs: Helping vs Main
Various Letter Styles
Verb Tense & Mood
Capitalization
Punctuation

Notes:

For Teachers:

This is not a comprehensive curriculum, but a “fast track”. This covers a “useful smattering” widely-applicable concepts on a semi-deeper level.

Vocabulary lists are not comprehensive, but meant to help a student understand literature on a given skill level, thus exposing the student to further vocabulary not covered.

Noun Case is meant to help students become familiar with how words are used, also to prepare students for studying other languages where case manifests in the form of spelling. This is “Noun Case in use”, not “spelling”, and serves as a pedagogical method, not content for core curriculum examination. If successful, proper use of English should improve overall, which is where the results would be seen in examination.

The “Read with Dot” series’ “Dot 6” should be understandable by about third grade. However, any book in the series could be revisited as a means to practice any specific language usage pattern as needed. This series is not comprehensive, but intended to rehearse certain language pattern skills to empower students to read competently at a given skill level, and, in reading other so-empowered literature, the student would thus develop a well-rounded skill set at that level.

For ESL:

Remember TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, AKA ‘English only’) is for conversation and real life practice. This requires a brainstorming/spontaneous-creative mind to recognize ESL-able materials with which to teach by example with any and every object in the situation. TESOL often requires props, AKA “realia”, to fuel conversation. Furniture, near/far locations, clothing, body parts, eating, exercises, demonstrable “Simon Says”, and charades are always available options for TESOL conversation if there are no other nearby items.

Constant TESOL conversation invention is a necessary skill to develop for a TESOL “culture” environment to thrive. Examples of TESOL personalities in mass media could be described as “Mr. Bean” or the “Swedish Chef” from the Muppets in communication style. Communicate ideas firstly without using words; use repetition both for memory and for students to be able to observe multiple times to help them understand the demonstrated concept.

TEFL, by contrast, views English as the “foreign” language. L1 (native language) can be used in TEFL, not TESOL; TESOL uses only L2 (second language) by definition. Typing, Writing, and Phonics can be used as resource realia for TESOL conversation, but should not be forced inasmuch as students are distracted by TESOL. An example cloud be saying, “Write A,” then writing the letter “A”, doing this multiple times until the student understands. But, the primary purpose of Typing, Writing, and Phonics should be those topics. Insert TESOL repetition and demonstration in as much as it does not distract. Grammar, by contrast, should be demonstrated via TESOL as much as possible, but L2 will be necessary for grammar, if for no other reason than to reflect on the concepts.

Adjective Spellings

Adjectives → Adverbs, Comparatives & Superlatives

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Adj. → Adv. (+ly)

(ADJ) +ly (ADJ) y → i +ly (ADJ) le → ly
bad → badly angry → angrily ample → amply
loud → loudly busy → busily feeble → feebly
smart → smartly happy → happily gentle → gently
quiet → quietly friendly → friendlily simple → simply
slow → slowly noisy → noisily terrible → terribly

Adj. → Comp. (+er)
Only if not using more _

(ADJ) e +r / +er (ADJ) y→i +er (ADJ) DD +er
(short vowel)
quick → quicker sly → slier big → bigger
long → longer happy → happier fat → fatter
slow → slower friendly → friendlier clean → cleaner
nice → nicer messy → messier mean → meaner

Adj. → Supl. (+est)
Only if not using most _

(ADJ) e +st / +est (ADJ) y→i +est (ADJ) DD +est
(short vowel)
quick → quickest sly → sliest big → biggest
long → longest happy → happiest fat → fattest
slow → slowest friendliest → friendliest clean → cleanest
nice → nicest messy → messiest mean → meanest

Verb Spellings

Plural & Tense

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Continuous Present +ing Simple Present +s Simple Past +ed (regular)
(VERB) +ing
(long vowel)
(VERB) +s (VERB) +ed
eat → eating like → likes talk → talked
see → seeing see → sees add → added
walk → walking walk → walks chew → chewed
push → pushing run → runs earn → earned
rain → raining rain → rains fax → faxed
(VERB) e +ing (VERB) {s sh ch x o} +es (VERB) e +d
live → living cross → crosses fence → fenced
bake → baking fish → fishes gaze → gazed
come → coming hatch → hatches name → named
hide → hiding box → boxes pause → paused
write → writing go → goes taste → tasted
(VERB) ie→y +ing (VERB) y→i +es (VERB) y→i +ed
die → dying carry → carries carry → carried
tie → tying study → studies study → studied
lie → lying try → tries try → tried
vie → vying fly → flies fly → flied
belie → belying verify → verifies verify → verified
(VERB) DD +ing
(short vowel)
(VERB) {ay ey oy uy} +s (VERB) DD +ed
(short vowel)
chat → chatting play → plays wrap → wrapped
shop → shopping portray → portrays mop → mopped
stem → stemming obey → obeys chat → chatted
swim → swimming enjoy → enjoys plan → planned
win → winning buy → buys zip → zipped