Noun Case

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10 Noun Cases

Nominative Oblique Genitive
Dative Genitive
Voc
Vocative
Nom
Nominative
Acc
Accusative
Dat
Dative
Loc
Locative
Ins
Instrumental
Lat
Lative
Abl
Ablative
Gen
Genitive
SA. S. DO. IO. IO. IO. IO. IO. Possessive
Ø PN. Ø DO. DO. DO. DO. DO. Descriptor
Ø to (∞) to (∞) at
in
on.
to
by
for
with
within
into
toward
until
unto
upon
through
at
in
on
by
with
within
near
upon
over
under
above
below
inside
through
in
on
by
with
through
at
in
on
to
by
into
onto
toward
upon
from of
from
about
Simple
Address
Subject

Predicate
Nominative


Subject
Infinitive


Subject
Gerund
Direct
Object


Predicate
Infinitive


Predicate
Gerund
Abstract
Involvement
Intent
Purpose
Service
Gift
Relation
Concept
Indirect Object
Direct Object
Time
Space
Proximity
Means
Method
Manner
Agent
Movement
toward
Movement
away
Possession
Origin
Approximation
Topic
Relation
Substance
Contents
Experiencer
Trigger
Modifier
Location
Direct Object
Subject

 

S. – Subject

PN. – Predicate Nominative

DO. – Direct Object

IO. – Indirect Object

SA. – Simple Address

 



 

Three cases do not use prepositions: Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative.

Accusative: Direct Object can also apply to a could-be “Locative” Case candidate when not having a preposition; viz “place”, whether “temporal place” or “place in space”, AKA “time & space”. This applies to “pronouns used as modifiers of time & space”…

  • Go/get home.
  • Do it tomorrow.
  • Come here.

(tomorrow/yesterday = pronoun, Cambridge CGEL)

These pronouns could be treated as modifiers/adverbs, but are easy to understand as pronouns with the Accusative or Nominative cases when used without prepositions.

Dative: Direct Object

  • Throw to me.

Genitive: Direct Object

  • Talk about John.
  • Argue about friendship.

Dative/Genitive: Comparison

  • See the forest for the trees. (Dative)
  • Know how to tell truth from lie and good from bad. (Genitive)

Three English cases (for pronouns): Nominative, Oblique, Genitive

English Cases (Pronouns, by spelling)
Nominative Oblique Genitive
I
We
He
She
They
me
us
him
her
them
my/mine
our/ours
his/his
her/hers
their/theirs

 


Three annexed cases: Ablative (Genitive); Locative & Instrumental (Dative)

Genitive (annexed)
Ablative Genitive
from Movement away I came from town.
They flew in from Alaska.
Look away from the sun.
Get back from the stove.
Origin It’s [a gift] from me.
Is that from the fridge?
They’re from Europe.
Learn from your father.

 

Dative (annexed)
Lative Dative
to
into
for
toward
until
unto
upon
on.
Movement toward
Indirect-Object
Direct-Object
I came to town.
They flew into Alaska.
Look toward/unto the sun.
We will work until/unto dawn.
Place it upon the stove.
Give it to me.
Move on.
Abstract
Indirect-Object
Direct-Object
Involvement
Intent
Purpose
Concept
in
within
Explain it to us.
Sing for them.
Talk with me.
Don’t speak for me.
This is to/for you.
He stole for food.
You can in theory.
Work within reason.
In all fairness…

 

Dative (annexed)
Locative Instrumental
with
in
on
upon
by
within
Time
Space
Proximity
at, near, by,
about, around,
during, within,
inside, etc.
She walked with her cousin.
Can you finish in one hour?
I read in my office on the
floor by the window.
They sat upon chairs.
He paced about the room.
Stay within the boundaries.
Means
Method
Manner
Agent
Mom writes with a pen.
They drove with care.
He spoke in anger.
We talked on the phone.
She went by bus.
Solve by asking.
It was written by her.

 


Note: “about” has many uses, but is always vaguely approximate.

about
Genitive
Modifier (adj./adv.)
Genitive
Location
Genitive
Direct Object
about [measure] (v.) about [location] (v.) of/about [topic/object]
about [midnight]
about [6 o’clock]
about [7 feet]
about [sea level]
about [eye level]
about [90%]
about [all I can take]
(run) about
(drive) about
(fly) about
(turn) about.
(BE) about.
out and about
around and about
(talk) about
(write) about
(speak) about
(think) about
(learn) about
(inform) about
(advise) about
approximately
around
roughly
close to
near
around.
in and around
nearby
all over
in the vicinity of
concerning
relating to
pertaining to
of/on
in connection to/with
It was about noon.
He is about 6 feet tall.
We flew about level
with the mountain.
They are about on time.
Don’t run about the house.
That bird has been flying
about the sky all day!
The ship turned about.
They are out and about.
We talked about yesterday.
He informed us about the concert.
She spoke about medicine.
I will learn more about HTML.
You should think about that.

 


Other Genitive Usage

Genitive: Experiencer —

  • That was thoughtful of you.
  • It was worthy of him to do such a good deed.

…because of you and of him have the person “experiencing” the predicate adjective.

Genitive: Trigger —

  • He died from poison.
  • She failed from lack of sleep.

…because poison was the “trigger” of his death and lack or lack of sleep “triggered” her failure.

Genitive: Possession —

  • the car of you AKA your car
  • the house of him AKA his house

Genitive: Substance —

  • an airplane made of paper
  • the bridge that was built from wood
  • a house of cards

Genitive: Contents —

  • a cup of coffee
  • a book about English

Genitive: Subject —

  • Mine is over there.
  • Your book was interesting.

Further Reading:
Wikipedia: Grammatical Case #Indo-European eight cases | #English
Syntax of natural language, Ch 8: Case theory, by Beatrice Santorini & Anthony Kroch