Noun Case

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Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative
Subject
Predicate-Nominative
Possession
Origin
Approximation
Motion
Topic
Relation
Substance
Contents
Experiencer
Trigger
Direct-Object
Indirect-Object
Involvement
Agent
Intent
Purpose
Relation
Concept
Means
Method
Manner
Time
Place
Proximity
Direct-Object
Direct-Object
Destination
Addressee
(Naming
people
when
addressing
them)
of
from
(vi.) about [D.O.]
in
to
into
for
with
by
on
around
about [n.]
under
over
near
beneath
by
at
(vt.) [D.O.]

Three English pronoun cases: nominative, oblique, genitive

Pronoun Cases (English)
Nominative Oblique Genitive
I
We
He
She
They
me
us
him
her
them
my/mine
our/ours
his/his
her/hers
their/theirs

Three merged cases: ablative (genitive); locative & instrumental (dative)

Genitive (merged)
Ablative vs Genitive
from Movement away I came from town.
They flew in from Alaska.
Look away from the sun.
Get back from the stove.
Origin It’s [a gift] from me.
Is that from the fridge?
They’re from Europe.
Learn from your father.
Dative (merged)
Lative vs Dative
to
into
for
toward
until
unto
upon
on.
Movement toward
Indirect-Object
Direct-Object
I came to town.
They flew into Alaska.
Look toward/unto the sun.
We will work until/unto dawn.
Place it upon the stove.
Give it to me.
Move on.
Abstract
Indirect-Object
Direct-Object
Involvement
Agent
Intent
Purpose
Concept
in
within
Explain it to us.
Sing for them.
Talk with me.
Don’t speak for me.
This is to/for you.
He stole for food.
You can in theory.
Work within reason.
In all fairness…
Dative (merged)
Locative Instrumental
with
in
on
upon
by
within
Time
Place
Proximity
about
at
near, etc.
She walked with her cousin.
Can you finish in one hour?
I read in my office on the
floor by the window.
They sat upon chairs.
He paced about the room.
Stay within the boundaries.
Means
Method
Manner
Mom writes with a pen.
They drove with care.
He spoke in anger.
We talked on the phone.
She went by bus.
Solve by asking.

Note: “about” has many uses, but is always vaguely approximate.

about
adj./adv. Genitive
Direct-Object
Locative
Proximity
about [measured] (v.) of/about [topic/object] (v.) about [location]
about [midnight]
about [6 o’clock]
about [7 feet]
about [sea level]
about [eye level]
about [90%]
about [all I can take]
(talk) about
(write) about
(speak) about
(think) about
(learn) about
(inform) about
(advise) about
(run) about
(drive) about
(fly) about
(turn) about.
(BE) about.
out and about
around and about
approximately
around
roughly
close to
near
concerning
relating to
pertaining to
of/on
in connection to/with
around.
in and around
nearby
all over
in the vicinity of
It was about noon.
He is about 6 feet tall.
We flew about level
with the mountain.
They are about on time.
We talked about yesterday.
He informed us about the concert.
She spoke about medicine.
I will learn more about HTML.
You should think about that.
Don’t run about the house.
That bird has been flying
about the sky all day!
The ship turned about.
They are out and about.

Genitive: Experiencer —

  • That was thoughtful of you.
  • It was worthy of him to do such a good deed.

…because of you and of him have the person “experiencing” the predicate adjective.

Genitive: Trigger —

  • He died from poison.
  • She failed from lack of sleep.

…because poison was the “trigger” of his death and lack or lack of sleep “triggered” her failure.


Further Reading:
Wikipedia: Grammatical Case #Indo-European eight cases | #English
Syntax of natural language, Ch 8: Case theory, by Beatrice Santorini & Anthony Kroch