Verb Tense & Mood

Doc on Google Drive | Simple HTML | Grammarist

Active Voice

Indicative

Past Present Future
Simple Simple Simple
did {base}
{preterit}
{base} will {base}
did write
wrote
write will write
Continuous Continuous Continuous
BE {gerund} BE {gerund} will be {gerund}
was/were writing am/is/are writing will be writing
Perfect Perfect Perfect
had {perfect} HAVE {perfect} will have {perfect}
had written has/have written will have written
Continuous Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous Perfect
had been {gerund} HAVE been {gerund} will have been {gerund}
had been writing has/have been writing will have been writing

Imperative

Command Permittance Continuation
Simple Let [O] {base} Keep {gerund}
{base} Let me/him/us/them write. Keep writing.
Write.
Allow [O] to {base} Continue {gerund}
Volitive Allow me/him/us/them to write. Continue writing.
Get {gerund}
Get writing.
Volitive Continuous
Start {gerund}
Start writing.

Subjunctive
* “Were” is formal, “was” is allowable.

Past Present Future
If [S] had {perfect} If [S] were/was {gerund} If [S] were/was to {base}
If I had written… If I were/was writing… If I were/was to write…
If Joe had written… If Joe were/was writing… If Joe were/was to write…
If we/they had written… If we/they were writing… If we/they were to write…
Had [S] {perfect} Were/Was [S] {gerund} Were/Was [S] to {base}
Had I written… Were/Was I writing… Were/Was I to write…
Had Joe written… Were/Was Joe writing… Were/Was Joe to write…
Had we/they written… Were we/they writing… Were we/they to write…

* For tone, “should” & “would” can replace “will”; “would have” & “should have” can replace “had”.

Past Continuous Present Continuous Future Continuous
If [S] had been {gerund} If [S] BE to be {gerund} If [S] will be {gerund}
If Joe had been writing… If I am to be writing… If Joe will be writing…
If we are to be writing…
Had [S] been {gerund} If Joe is to be writing… Would/Should [S] be {gerund}
Had Joe been writing… If they are to be writing… Would/Should Joe be writing…

Passive Voice

* Generally, Passive use either BE or adds “be/been/being”, using the Perfect verb form.

Indicative

Past Present Future
Simple Simple Simple
BE {perfect} BE {perfect} will be {perfect}
was/were written am/is/are written will be written
Continuous Continuous Continuous
BE being {perfect} BE being {perfect} will be being {perfect}
was/were being written
am/is/are being written
will be being written
Perfect Perfect Perfect
had been {perfect} HAVE been {perfect} will have been {perfect}
had been written has/have been written will have been written
Continuous Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous Perfect
had been being {perfect} HAVE been being {perfect} will have been being {perfect}
had been being written has/have been being written will have been being written

Imperative

Command Permittance Continuation
Simple Let [O] be {perfect} Keep (being) {perfect}
be {perfect} Let me/him/us/them be written. Keep (being) written.
Be written.
Allow [O] to be {perfect} Continue being {perfect}
Volitive Allow me/us/them to be written. Continue being written.
Get {perfect}
Get written.
Volitive Continuous
Start being {perfect}
Start being written.

Subjunctive
* “Were” is formal, “was” is allowable.

Past Present Future
If [S] had been {perfect} If [S] were/was being {perfect} If [S] were/was to be {perfect}
If I had been written… If I were/was being written… If I were/was to be written…
If Joe had been written… If Joe were/was being written… If Joe were/was to be written…
If we/they had been written… If we/they were being written… If we/they were to be written…
Had [S] been {perfect} Were/Was [S] being {perfect} Were/Was [S] to be {perfect}
Had I been written… Were/Was I being written… Were/Was I to be written…
Had Joe been written… Were/Was Joe being written… Were/Was Joe to be written…
Had we/they been written… Were we/they being written… Were we/they to be written…

* For tone, “should” & “would” can replace “will”; “would have” & “should have” can replace “had”.

Past Continuous Present Continuous Future Continuous
If [S] had been being {perfect} If [S] BE to be being {perfect} If [S] will be being {perfect}
If Joe had been being writing… If I am to be being written… If Joe will be being written…
If we are to be being written…
Had [S] been being {perfect} If Joe is to be being written… Would/Should [S] be being {perfect}
Had Joe been being written… If they are to be being written… Would/Should Joe be being written…