Noun Spellings

Number & Possession

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Three Rules of Noun Forms:

  1. Sometimes add “s” for plural.
  2. Always add “s” and ‘ (apostrophe) for possessive.
  3. Only add ones.

So, only add only ‘ (apostrophe) if the ending “s” was added to make it plural.

Singular Plural Singular
Possessive
Plural
Possessive
[NOUN] [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s
apple apples apples apples
Mark Marks Marks Marks
Johnson Johnsons Johnsons Johnsons
[NOUN] {}
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +s
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
atlas atlases atlass atlases
boss bosses bosss bosses
marsh marshes marshs marshes
stitch stitches stitchs stitches
fox foxes foxs foxes
potato potatoes potatos potatoes
Jones Joneses Joness Jonses
[NOUN] y [NOUN] y→i +es [NOUN] y +s [NOUN] y→i +es
puppy puppies puppys puppies
[NOUN] {}
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
bay bays bays bays
key key keys keys
boy boy boys boys
 guy guy guys guys
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
child children childs childrens
mouse mice mouses mices
person people persons peoples
a people many peoples a peoples many peoples
money monies
moneys (pre 1970)
moneys monies
moneys (pre 1970)
it they its
(no apostrophe)
their

101 Nouns

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*Key: Anglicized | Regular | Same

Singular Plural Singular
Possessive
Plural
Possessive
[NOUN] [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s [NOUN] +s
[NOUN] {}
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +s
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] {} +es
{s ss sh ch x o}
[NOUN] y [NOUN] y→i +es [NOUN] y +s [NOUN] y→i +es
[NOUN] {}
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN] {} +s
{ay ey oy uy}
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
[NOUN]+s
(irregular)
aircraft aircraft aircraft’s aircrafts’
alumnus
alumna
alumni
alumnae
alumnus’
alumna’s
alumni’s
alumnae’s
analysis analyses analysis’s analyses’
antenna antennae
antennas
antenna’s antennae’s
antennas’
apex apices
apexes
apex’s apices’
apexes’
appendix appendices
appendixes
appendix’s appendices’
appendixes’
asteroid asteroids asteroid’s asteroids’
axis axes axis’s axes’
bacterium bacteria bacterium’s bacteria’s
basis bases basis’s bases’
bison bison bison’s bison’s
bureau bureaux
bureaus
bureau’s bureaux’s
bureaus’
cactus cacti
cactus
cactuses
cactus’s cacti’s
cactus’s
cactuses’
carriage carriages carriage’s carriages’
château châteaux
châteaus
château’s châteaux’s
châteaus’
child children child’s children’s
codex codices codex’s codices’
comma commas comma’s commas’
comet comets comet’s comets’
concerto concerti
concertos
concerto’s concerti’s
concertos’
crisis crises crisis’s crises’
criterion criteria
criterions
criterion’s criteria’s
criterions’
curriculum curricula
curriculums
curriculum’s curricula’s
curriculums’
datum data datum’s data’s
deer deer
deers
deer’s deer’s
deers’
diagnosis diagnoses diagnosis’s diagnoses’
die dice
dies
die’s dice’s
dies’
dwarf dwarves
dwarfs
dwarf’s dwarves’
dwarfs’
ellipsis ellipses ellipsis’s ellipses’
elk elks elk’s elks’
fish fish
fishes
fish’s fish’s
fishes’
focus foci
focuses
focus’s foci’s
focuses’
foot feet
foot
foot’s feet’s
foot’s
formula formulae
formulas
formula’s formulae’s
formulas’
fungus fungi
funguses
fungus’s fungi’s
funguses’
genus genera
genuses
genus’s genera’s
genuses’
giraffe giraffes giraffe’s giraffes’
goose geese goose’s geese’s
graffito graffiti graffito’s graffiti’s
grouse grouse
grouses
grouse’s grouse’s
grouses’
half halves half’s halves’
hippopotamus hippopotami
hippopotamuses
hippopotamus’s hippopotami’s
hippopotamuses’
hoof hooves
hoofs
hoof’s hooves’
hoofs’
hypothesis hypotheses hypothesis’s hypotheses’
index indices
indexes
index’s indices’
indexes’
Indian Indians Indian’s Indians’
larva larvae
larvas
larva’s larvae’s
larvas’
loaf loaves loaf’s loaves’
locus loci locus’s loci’s
louse lice louse’s lice’s
man men man’s men’s
matrix matrices
matrixes
matrix’s matrices’
matrixes’
a medium media
mediums
a medium’s media’s
mediums’
media media media’s media’s
memorandum memoranda
memorandums
memorandum’s memoranda’s
memorandums’
minutia minutiae minutia’s minutiae’s
moose moose moose’s moose’s
mouse mice mouse’s mice’s
nebula nebulae
nebulas
nebula’s nebulae’s
nebulas’
nucleus nuclei
nucleuses
nucleus’s nuclei’s
nucleuses’
oasis oases oasis’s oases’
octapus octopi
octapuses
octapus’s octopi’s
octapuses’
offspring offspring
offsprings
offspring’s offspring’s
offsprings
opus opera
opuses
opus’s opera’s
opuses’
orange oranges orange’s oranges’
ovum ova ovum’s ova’s
ox oxen
ox
ox’s oxen’s
ox’s
parenthesis parentheses parenthesis’s parentheses’
phenomenon phenomena
phenomenons
phenomenon’s phenomena’s
phenomenons’
phylum phyla phylum’s phyla’s
prognosis prognoses prognosis’s prognoses’
quail quail
quails
quail’s quail’s
quails’
quiz quizzes quiz’s quizzes’
radius radii
radiuses
radius’s radii’s
radiuses’
referendum referenda
referendums
referendum’s referenda’s
referendums’
rhinoceros rhinoceri
rhinoceros
rhinoceroses
rhinoceros’s rhinoceri’s
rhinoceros’s
rhinoceroses’
salmon salmon
salmons
salmon’s salmon’s
salmons’
scarf scarves
scarfs
scarf’s scarves’
scarfs’
self selves self’s selves’
series series series’s series’
sheep sheep sheep’s sheep’s
shrimp shrimp
shrimps
shrimp’s shrimp’s
shrimps’
species species species’s species
stimulus stimuli stimulus’s stimuli’s
tooth teeth tooth’s teeth’s
swine swine swine’s swine’s
syllabus syllabi
syllabuses
syllabus’s syllabi’s
syllabuses’
symposium symposia
symposiums
symposium’s symposia’s
symposiums’
synopsis synopses synopsis’s synopses’
thesis theses thesis’s theses’
thief thieves thief’s thieves’
tooth teeth tooth’s teeth’s
trout trout
trouts
trout’s trout’s
trouts’
tuna tuna
tunas
tuna’s tuna’s
tunas’
vertebra vertebrae
vertebras
vertebra’s vertebrae’s
vertebras
vertex vertices
vertexes
vertex’s vertices’
vertexes’
vortex vortices
vortexes
vortex’s vortices’
vortexes’
wharf wharves
wharf’s
wharf’s wharves’
wharfs’
wife wives wife’s wives’
wolf wolves wolf’s wolves’
woman women woman’s women’s

10-12 Literature Terms

English Lit

allegory
allusion
analogy
anecdote
archetype
assonance
author’s bias
clincher sentence
consonance
context
couplet
denotative meaning
epic
expressive writing
irony
limited point of view
lyric poem
ode
omniscient point of view
onomatopoeia
parable
resume’
rhetorical question
sarcasm
semicolon
soliloquy
stream of consciousness
structural analysis
thesis
thesis statement
universal theme

Senior Lit

acronym
ambience
aesthetic purpose
appeal to authority
aesthetic quality
appeal to emotion
American Psychological As appeal to logic
autobiographical narrative
artifact
belief system
ballad
biographical narrative
bias
circumlocution
coherence
cohesion
credibility
concept
criteria
connotative meaning
debate
direct address
divided quotation
dramatic dialogue
drama-documentary
emotional appeal
external/internal conflict
future perfect verb tense hierarchic structure
hostile audience
interior monologue
internal conflict
Neoclassic literature
literary criticism
pastoral
nuance
proposition of fact speech
proposition of policy speech
past perfect verb tense
proposition of problem speech
proposition of value speech
Romantic period literature
secondary source
temporal change
standard English
text feature
text structure
overstatement
understatement

Style Guides

Main Style Guides

  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • Modern Language Association
  • The Associated Press Stylebook
United Kingdom Styles
  • The Oxford Style Manual
  • The King’s English
  • Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Authors and Publishers

Field-Specific Style Guide Examples

  • ACS Style Guide (American Chemical Society)
  • Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (Council of Science Editors)
  • SBL Handbook of Style (Society of Biblical Literature, ancient Near Eastern, biblical, and early Christian studies)
  • American Medical Association Manual of Style
  • American Psychological Association Style Guide
  • American Sociological Association Style Guide

9 Academic Terms

9 Literature

alliteration
analysis
annotated bibliography
author’s purpose
cause and effect relationship
character development
comparison
conflict resolution
contrast
draws conclusions
hyperbole
idiom
indefinite adjective
indefinite pronoun
interrogative pronoun
main idea or essential message
makes inferences
organizational pattern
parody
persuasive devices
plot development
point of view
primary source
propaganda
reference materials
relevant supporting details
satire
setting
synthesis
tone

9 Global Studies

acculturation
apartheid
assimilation
coalition
commodity
deforestation
democracy
diffusion
diversify
economy
entrepreneur
Euro
export
free enterprise
geography
global economy
gross domestic product
gross national product
illiteracy
industralization
infrastructure
innovation
migration
nationalism
natural resource
OPEC
per capita income
population density
recession
representative democracy

9 Science

acceleration
activation energy
Big Bang Theory
centripetal force
circuit
conduction
conservation of energy
conservation of mass
convection
dependent variable
eclipse
electromagnetic
fault
galaxy
hypothesis
independent variable
inertia
matter
momentum
planetary motion
plate tectonics
qualitative
quantitative
rate of reaction
spring tide
theory
thermodynamics
velocity

8 Academic Terms

8 Literature

academic journal
antonym
bibliography
business letter
character development
context clues
draws conclusions
elaboration
figurative language
formal language
informal language
intonation
metaphor
narration
parallel structure
perspective
persuasive text
plagiarism
problem-solution
report
research paper
simile
synthesize
viewpoint

8 US History

abolitionist movement
agrarian
alien
amend
bicameral
boycott
Founding Fathers
citizenship
compromise
debate
secede
democratic forms of gov’t
Declaration of Independence
Emancipation Proclamation
checks and balances
Federalism
justify
legislature
liberty
Marbury v Madison
neutrality
nullify
popular sovereignty
preamble
precedent
prejudice
propaganda
ratify
republic
revolution

8 Math

alternate exterior angles
alternate interior angles
altitude
analyze
approximation
constant
converse
corresponding parts
dependent event
discount
domain (of a function)
extrapolate
function notation
independent event
intercept
linear equations
mark-up
multiplicative inverse
polynomials
predict
prerequisite
property
range (of a function)
relation
segment
sequence
similarity
slope
substitution
transversal

8 Science

atmosphere
carbon cycle
chemical weathering
climate
comet
convection
crust
dependent variable
deposition
erosion
experimental control
fossil fuel
gravitational force
heat transfer
hypothesis
independent variable
law
mantle
mass
meteor
neap tide
ocean basin
planet
plate tectonics
scientific method
sedimentation
seismic wave
spring tide
star
theory
variable
volume
physical weathering

7 Academic Terms

7 Literature

caption
column
columnist
conflict resolution
descriptive language
editorial
fact vs opinion
foreshadowing
interview
italics
journalism
paraphrase
personification
plot development
relevant supporting details
reporter
salutation
sentence combining
stereotype
synonym

7 Social Studies

ally
biodiversity
Black Death
capital
Congress
conquest
consumer
continental divide
crusade
dictatorship
embargo
emperor
empire
ethnicity
feudalism
generation
genocide
hemisphere
interdependence
maritime
mission
monarchy
navigable
parliament
philosophy
president
renaissance
theocracy
trial
tributary

7 Math

adjacent angles
box and whisker plot
coefficient
combinations
counting principle
diagonal
dilation
extreme
factorial
hypotenuse
interest
irrational
like terms
midpoint
percent of change
permutations
powers
principal
Pythagorean theorem
quartile
radical
rational numbers
real numbers
scatter plot
scientific notation
square root
surface area
terminating
tetrahedron
trapezoid

7 Science

acceleration
amplitude
calorie
circuit
conduction
conservation of energy
convection
crest
dependent variable
electromagnetic radiation
electron
entropy
experimental control
force
frequency
hypothesis
independent variable
inertia
law (scientific law)
magnetic field
neutron
pressure
proton
scientific method
speed
theory
thermal energy
trough
variable
velocity
volume
wavelength

6 Academic Terms

6 Literature

author’s purpose
autobiography
biography
cause and effect relationship
climax
closing
comparison
contrast
dialogue
main idea or essential message
organizational patterns
root word
simple word analogies
tone
transition

6 Social Studies

agriculture
ancient
Apartheid
Buddhism
cash crop
Christianity
chronology
circa
civilization
conflict
culture
developing
diplomacy
diversity
domesticate
ethnic group
famine
geography
Hinduism
imperialism
irrigation
Islam
Judaism
monotheism
polytheism
scarce
socioeconomics
sub-continent
subsistence
tolerance

6 Math

absolute value
additive inverse
algebraic equation
algebraic expression
complementary angles
coordinates
elapsed time
equilateral
formula
horizontal
image
improper fraction
integers
linear measurement
mixed numbers
natural numbers
odds
origin
pi
quadrilateral
quadrant
rate
rule
scale drawing
simplify (simplest form)
supplementary angles
vertical
vertical angles
x axis
y axis

6 Science

abiotic
adaptation
allele
asexual reproduction
biodiversity
biotic
cell theory
conservation of energy
dependent variable
dominance
ecosystem
experimental control
gene
heterozygous
homozygous
hypothesis
independent variable
law
mass
meiosis
mitosis
nucleus
punnett square
recessive
scientific method
sexual reproduction
theory
tropism
variable
virus
volume
weight

5 Academic Terms

5 Literature

cause and effect
character development
compare and contrast
conflict resolution
double negative
draw conclusions
make inferences
homophone
main idea
persuasive test
point of view
reference materials
relevant supporting details

5 Social Studies

abolish
amendment
Art. of Confederation
American Revolution
Bill of Rights
Branches of government
checks and balances
Civil War
Confederacy
Congress
Constitution
Declaration of Independence
democracy
economic systems
emancipation
federal
immigrant
Industrial Revolution
loyalist
map scale
Mayflower Compact
Parliament
petition
preamble
primary source
repeal
representative gov’t
republic
supply and demand
tariff

5 Math

algebraic rule
base
break-squiggle
circumference
composite number
coordinate grid
divisible
equation
expression
frequency
function
inequality
interval
labels
likelihood
line segment
mass
pie chart
prime factorization
prime number
radius
ray
scale/scale model
similar figures
square root
stem and leaf plot
tessellation
tree diagram
variable
vertex

5 Science

atom
change of state
compound
conduction
convection
deposition
ecosystem
element
energy pyramid
energy transfer
erosion
gravitation
hypothesis
igneous rock
inertia
invertebrate
kinetic energy
metamorphic rock
nonrenewable resource
photosynthesis
potential energy
radiation
renewable resource
scientific method
sedimentary rock
tissue
topographical map (topography)
variable
vertebrate
weathering

4 Academic Terms

4 Literature

antonym
author’s purpose
chronological order
context clues
draft
homonym
multiple meanings
plot
plot development
settings
summarize
synonym
theme
topic sentence

4 Social Studies

agriculture
artifact
barrier island
boundary
boycott
cash crop
civil rights
climate
colony
compromise
Cracker
cultural heritage
discriminate
executive
export
geopolitical map
governor
import
integration
judicial
latitude
legislature
longitude
map key
peninsula
segregation
slave trade
territory
tourism
treaty

4 Math

acute angle
bar graph
decimal
diameter
direct measure
equilateral triangle
equivalent forms
greatest common factor
improper fraction
indirect measure
mixed number
negative number
non-standard units of measure
obtuse angle
organized data
parallelogram
percent
perpendicular lines
pictograph
plane
prism
quotient
ratio
relative size
rule
similarity
standard units of measure
transformation
unorganized data
vertex

4 Science

atmosphere
chemical change
conservation
constellation
density
deposition
earthquake
fossil
fulcrum
galaxy
hypothesis
igneous rock
inclined plane
lever
magnetic
metamorphic rock
microscopic
physical change
protist
pulley
reflection
refraction
revolution
rotation
scientific method
sedimentary rock
universe
variable
volcano
wheel and axle

3 Academic Terms

3 Literature

appendix
audience
brainstorm
chapter title
consonant substitution
contraction
decode
directions
edit
encyclopedia
essay
fable
fantasy
fiction
glossary
illustration
index
legend
mystery
myth
nonfiction
paragraph
period
prefix
syllable

3 Social Studies

adapt
ancestor
century
citizenship
city
civilization
communication
community
custom
exploration
decade
goods
government
immigrant
income
industry
invention
location
migration
natural resources
region
rural
services
state
suburban
symbol
trade
tradition
urban
vaccine

3 Math

algorithm
area
axes
capacity
closed figure
coordinate
denominator
dividend
divisor
face
factor
flip-reflection
intersection
line graph
mean
median
metric system
multiple
net
numerator
ordered pair
point
probability
product
range
remainder
right angle
rotation-turn
slide-translation
volume

3 Science

adaptation
axis
carnivore
community
condensation
consumer
decomposer
ecosystem
environment
equator
erosion
evaporation
experiment
herbivore
investigation
kinetic energy
magnetism (magnetic)
mixture
nonrenewable resource
population
potential energy
producer
renewable resource
revolution
rotation
solar system
solution
system
water cycle
weathering

2 Academic Terms

2 Literature

chapter character
composition
comprehension
discussion
fairy tale
folktale
main character
main idea
map
number word
periodical
prewriting
publish
purpose
main question
reread
retell
series
spelling pattern
symbol
table of contents
textbook
vocabulary

2 Social Studies

barter
colonist
compass rose
conservation
consumer
courage
crop
desert
equator
explorer
factory
festival
generation
governor
honesty
income
independence
island
landform
landmark
mayor
monument
Native American
Orlando
Pilgrim
pioneer
producer
settler
technology
valley
2-Dimensional
3-Dimensional

2 Math

angle
array
centimeter
clockwise
cone
congruent
cube
customary unit
data
digit
doubles fact
dozen
edge
estimation
expanded notation
fact family
line segment
maximum
minimum
mode
multiplication
numeral
operations
parallel
perimeter
polygon
sphere
symmetry

2 Science

amphibian
attract
axis
bird
consumer
energy
environment
experiment
fish
food web
force
friction
gravity
life cycle
mammal
mass
matter
mixture
moon phase
motion
pollution
predator
prey
producer
reflect
repel
reptile
rotation
solar system
vibrate

1 Academic Terms

1 Literature

author
letter-sound relationship
beginning consonant
ending consonant
blend
consonant blend
dictionary
margin
parts of a book
poem
print
rhyme
syllable
title
title page
vowel combination
vowel sound

1 Social Studies

budget
capital
citizen
continent
country
earn
freedom
folktale
geography
history
inventor
law
market
needs
ocean
opportunity
patriotic symbols
plain
population
recycle
region
resource
river
shelter
trade
transportation
volunteer
vote
wants
world

1 Math

addend
addition
a.m.
analog
attribute
celsius
chart
cylinder
decrease
degree
digital
even number
Fahrenheit
fraction
height
increase
length
line
number line
odd number
order
place value
p.m.
side
subtraction
sum
table
tally
timeline
weight

1 Science

balance
energy
evaporation
food chain
force
gas
gravity
habitat
heat
life cycle
light
liquid
living
mass
matter
nonliving
planet
predict
recycle
resource
rock
season
shadow
soil
solid
sound
speed
temperature
vibrate
volume

K Academic Terms

K Literature

alphabet
back cover
book
cover
date
first name
last name
front cover
letter
magazine
movie
newspaper

K Social Studies

calendar
chore
communicate
community
fairness
flag
globe
group
hero
holiday
job
lake
language
leader
map
money
mountain
neighborhood
pictograph
president
rule
safety
season
symbol
tool
transportation
weather

K Math

above
balance
behind
below
between
calendar
cent
circle
clock
coin
corner
counting
dime
equal
graph
inside
minute
near
nickel
number
parttern
penny
rectangle
shape
square
triangle
week
whole
zero

K Science

air
alike
animal
day
different
Earth
energy
gas
heat
light
liquid
living
magnet
matter
moon
night
nonliving
observe
plant
pulling
pushing
seed
shadow
sky
solid
sound
star
sun
thermometer
weather

10-12 Words

10.1

accommodation
fertility
scientifically
theoretical
input
currently
rashly
electronics
ironic
revival
multiple
confidential
introduce
tourism
insure
vibe
justify
glow
humanity
sleeve
protective
originality
confused
peep
murder
thrive
resource
essentially
horror
bribery
tolerate
repair
immediate
involvement
offer
contents
sincere
immigration
refusal
glare
harmful
yield
stepmother
nature
regretfully
poach
incredible
encourage
sealed
sincerity
explanation
recently
republican
flight
deafening
economic
stunned
neighborhood
enormously
throughout
disturbance
dreaadful
term
throne
substance
profitable
hatred
discipline
skillfully
misfortune
progressive
activity
victim
awful
dessert
chunk
protect
royalty
creep
elder
particle
slip
diary
promient
seize
continual
cripple
psychological
manufacturer
expansion
assassin
logo
ruins
warning
boost
disappear
atom
endorse
enthusiastic
strength
musical
success
pity
holy
anxiety
distort
ideal
racist
frank
improve
roam
claim
contemporary
silence
diplomatic
reality
rash
escape
occupy
voluntarily
delete
gloomy
install
sobriety
restrict
definitely
circumstances
delay
statistics
miserable
official
abrupt
social
excluding
offensive
strategic
qualification
embrace
progression
virtual
manufacturing
tend
hesitantly
influential
endurance
blame
progress
tasty
prediction
circumstantial
sacrificially
refresh
profitability
background
university
punish
entity
lick
military
rub
chronic
creator
advisable
reproduce
breathing
acceptance
advertise
inferior
religious
mission
compliment
refreshments
pressure
element
profession
shocked
dine
seriously
judgmental
pesticide
valuable
critical
impression
classic
geographical
beam
ungratefully
vessel
monster
contemplate
intention
substantially
export
clumsy
joyful
errand
industrialize
sympathy
vary
reserved

10.2

percent
expressive
oblige
assistant
promote
restore
attain
register
laughter
intolerable
genuinely
overall
depress
previously
obvious
memory
monopoly
invention
paralyze
suitability
elect
roast
simplicity
optimism
agency
reservation
election
improvement
thorough
estimate
suicide
deafen
identification
approve
dread
disappointment
deceive
recommendation
offense
emigration
rage
emotional
exaggeration
horrible
ally
contemplation
celebrity
maximize
inanimate
restoration
continuously
optimistic
occasionally
conclusion
vague
intimate
dreadfully
automatic
impregnate
rental
obligation
persistent
satisfaction
tension
disappointed
virtue
contact
saying
reserve
participant
mislead
opinion
relate
reflection
abruptly
probable
meanwhile
effectively
undisturbed
dreadful
despite
involve
namely
challenger
possibility
attainment
fundamentally
praise
incident
creation
triple
composition
soberly
engagement
weaken
competitor
comedian
absolute
geography
immortal
confrontation
plot
painful
affectionate
nevertheless
assign
novelist
snatch
despair
employer
comedy
classification
pessimistic
instantly
policy
ego
deficient
migrate
politician
stressful
fellow
announcement
comment
distortion
inquisition
somewhat
vibrate
mass
participate
effective
texture
peril
solemn
practical
fundamentals
moreover
accordingly
complexity
attraction
decision
democratic
infection
cherish
hushed
revenge
vehicle
grave
thoroughly
covet
likewise
responsibility
remedy
suffer
nationality
exceed
sacred
withdrawl
event
curiosity
regret
priesthood
backpack
explode
repay
starvation
dimly
medal
convenience
explosive
throng
empty
neglectful
agricultural
press
sample
observatory
concealment
chilling
paste
agriculture
unethical
organization
scream
embarrassment
inappropriate
aid
expression
gesture
haunt
illustrate
succeed
funds
pslm
violate
previous
tempt
crush
acknowledge
isolation
norm

11.1

reload
nonetheless
nasty
product
acquire
brooding
compete
kit
amuse
diversification
enroll
afterward
consideration
preferrable
conservatively
emigrant
childhood
familiar
scientific
crammed
restriction
tourist
battered
labor
scan
dependence
availability
additionally
betray
accurately
orientation
entertainment
introduction
fulfill
mess
therefore
confusion
diversify
manage
tan
additional
relieve
energetic
evil
dependent
realize
reward
merchant
disturb
hollow
advise
calculation
employ
lung
withdrew
pride
complicated
evolution
international
issue
imitation
obtain
academic
maintain
injurious
memorize
label
oppose
refreshment
troublesome
plantation
legend
awake
continental
complicate
haste
span
suburban
prosperity
documentary
sustainability
fortunately
ruin
verbally
horrify
nutrient
elderly
superstition
undergo
suspicion
reaction
gain
tourment
alarming
insulting
expectation
aspect
harmony
judgment
amusing
orchestra
conservation
ski
translation
reasonable
relation
plenty
applaud
discharge
ridiculous
prosperous
journalist
fail
elemental
sacrifice
successful
extreme
pile
boldness
funeral
proposal
liberally
react
scarring
appealing
satisfying
injure
respectful
boundary
perceive
bruise
injection
insult
nod
vocal
hesitation
temptation
inspection
inquire
hall
skinny
discover
overcome
vote
romantic
isolate
freedom
slide
environment
ethics
sermon
mental
imaginative
appreciation
inevitably
producer
stimulate
strengthen
dull
artificial
permission
disturbed
surroundings
shoot
irresponsible
expert
acute
excessive
explosion
pedistrian
establish
detention
stepfather
community
unconscious
slavery
container
sow
conviction
recognition
humorous
rapidly
substantiate
detail
gentle
continue
destruction
ordinary
crack
tendency
hunger
liberty
satisfactory
forgive
relaxation
intimacy
dose
amusement
fantastic
disclosure

11.2

organize
delightful
similarly
survivor
political
breath
feasibility
publisher
messenger
security
regretful
fertilizer
belief
error
mechanical
crown
frustration
item
lifetime
comprehension
decrease
preach
humiliation
employment
motivate
affection
sheer
confine
melt
priest
development
attack
heed
cinema
identify
consumer
drama
trail
exhaust
inspiring
maintenance
mood
ingredient
crisis
enthusiasm
handle
diverse
govern
nag
fur
tip
chilly
threaten
traditional
refuse
politics
fulfillment
offspring
accomplishment
possession
determination
native
forecast
ethical
leather
tolerant
load
stimulation
itch
staff
choice
population
association
intent
slave
flourish
download
sticky
greeting
definite
privacy
requirement
genuine
personal
entry
display
preservation
definition
eventual
monotony
lifespan
customer
frankly
humorously
acceptable
arise
inferiority
emigrate
immensely
respectively
opportunity
rob
morality
advanced
range
immediately
contract
racism
positive
romance
agent
recommend
moderately
contentment
bubble
satisfy
garment
standard
frustrate
poacher
effort
reply
promotion
strangle
respective
ecosystem
customary
complex
neglect
discuss
illustration
nerd
scrape
commit
pretentious
wealth
boom
management
exclusive
robbery
portrait
collapse
production
pursuit
spit
friendly
assistance
realm
astronomer
dare
clip
respond
phase
secure
trample
conscience
reduction
icon
characteristic
resistant
evident
owe
sustain
acknowledgement
suspect
denial
understandable
otherwise
humiliate
skillful
gathering
procrastinate
interruption
belongings
violation
imaginary
ambassador
interpret
inject
itchy
furthermore
gallery
inspiration
audience
guarantee
sympathize
due
shadow
mysterious
chain
astronomic
equipment
emerge
agreement
offend
novel
organism
survival
designer
sudden

12.1

shocking
flesh
guilt
statistical
batter
attend
appreciative
crippling
republic
tear
contrast
jail
tramp
contemplative
remarkable
application
contrary
message
burst
eruption
communication
convict
ecology
inventor
sacrificial
construction
democracy
behavior
colonial
blur
shock
interpretation
annoy
recipe
inspector
crop
demand
nowadays
peeping
hesitant
identity
serial
roll
promptly
reject
opportunist
tenderly
determined
infertile
vein
receive
description
conquest
ridicule
significance
connection
impolite
poaching
hesitate
engaged
proper
normal
bully
define
memorable
classical
situation
emotion
cuisine
relieved
persistently
involuntarily
imagination
employee
outward
founder
gratefully
alternatively
installation
magnet
quarrel
essence
sober
abusive
frown
drown
alarmed
lean
sneeze
efficiency
foolish
spiritual
expand
role
discussion
raise
worth
participation
tilt
dimension
fundamental
innocence
criminal
tremendous
compromise
friendship
depression
consciously
confront
pour
society
motivational
prevention
nearby
associate
exposure
astonishing
volume
haul
acquisition
colony
roughly
assumption
conquerer
fortune
arisen
dispute
opposition
apparently
related
apply
eventually
feature
pill
gossip
compel
violent
modesty
trunk
apology
regard
affect
suburb
somehow
kidnap
hug
astonishment
deficiency
barrel
poet
pace
lessen
brood
yawn
appearance
arrangement
greet
theorize
desperately
famine
density
cunning
anxiously
achieve
cabinet
separation
diplomat
operate
wildlife
murderer
signify
disastrous
representative
cautions
coastline
ceremony
quantity
entirely
assassinate
honesty
sexual
fund
surge
interrupt
diligence
formation
advance
detain
democrat
shelperd
addict
impress
harvest
discovery
supplier
critic
comfortable
universally
passionate
hazard
accept
enthrone
decade
regarding
delight
perilous
minimum
vibration
amazingly
hush
breathe
destiny
inspect
resistance
literature
file
stun
erase
skip
shortage
landscape
portray
mocking
laboratory
diplomacy
disappoint
deliver
brutal
willing
immigrant

12.2

extremity
flavor
understanding
occupation
immigrate
useless
destine
depressing
sloppy
comprehend
guilty
protection
secret
adviser
gnaw
cruel
command
captive
desirable
carve
classify
evidence
overnight
suspicious
fertile
punishment
stray
stereotypical
retirement
originally
tolerance
equip
powder
structure
assignment
potentially
regular
glamour
imprison
religion
commercial
funding
rent
destroy
pregnancy
hasty
indeed
electronic
properly
petty
damage
violence
herbicide
worthless
polite
infect
mechanic
gleam
channel
solemnly
according
unconsciously
consumption
realization
insecure
psychology
involved
motivation
network
bribe
criticize
psychologist
conceal
individuality
slaughter
pessimism
imagine
procrastination
account
publish
prompt
degree
moderate
stereotype
chemical
propose
pollute
rejoice
stain
headquarters
version
monstrous
reversal
attachment
gloom
amazement
surgery
technological
addiction
rejection
circumstance
procrastinator
gender
prudent
announce
competitive
admission
alternative
private
adolescent
endorsement
internal
journalism
precaution
traveler
hence
professional
responsive
giggly
fossil
admit
surf
repress
tender
relief
qualify
manner
motive
gossipy
innocent
series
industrial
coastal
indication
structural
extinction
inquiry
profit
catastrophe
strike
pregnant
concerning
researcher
conflict
including
inquisitive
barrier
muscle
cruelty
odds
decoration
creature
progressively
supplies
concentration
campus
thoughtful
exhibition
frequently
environmental
mortal
fond
dusty
automatically
mix
original
conquer
disregard
fool
adolescence
disagree
foundation
plastic
involuntary
unavailable
fascinate
upward
exchange
insurance
publication
judge
culture
ironically
loyalty
isolated
engage
weave
backpacking
magnetic
torture
opportunistic
justified
accompany
drill
colorful
stunning
willingness
pinch
forgiveness
poisonous
tense
shabby towel
frantically
neglected
failure
endure
irony
pollution
technology
infertility
mentally
extremely
research
billion
relax
gratitude
stubborn
alike
conduct
inspirational
generation
percentage
insert

K-9 Words

K

dry
wet
shoe
ten
long
stay
yellow
watch
inch
cup
time
words
same
six
bones
black
god
sun
child
ear
most
page
work
white
five
arms
snow
main
nine
water
head
eggs
rain
test
seven
root
law
fall
dog
cow
red
doctor
baby
feet
room
rule
one
blue
dark
legs
wind
skin
ball
green
two
ever
car
body
box
orange
gave
door
four
europe
picture
wish
purple
ready
try
neck
brown
through
sky
grass
air
sign
whether
dance
pink
eight
drive
too
sat
gray
three
hit
man
love
hand

1.1

anything
syllables
past
describe
winter
even
also
eleven
moon
fruit
sand
apple
women
nose
solve
Math problem
plus
minus
equals
stone
pants
shirt
starry
thousand
america
divided
just
train
shall
held
short
lay
twelve
suddenly
mind
race
clothes
learn
picked
probably
raised
finished
end
years
bill
place
hundred
different
drop
came
river
milk
beautiful
square
lake
hole
fingers
flat
sea
type

1.2

interest
job
because
such
think
thirteen
subject
answer
letter
meet
north
length
need
times
divide (by)
times table
edge
soft
months
present
energy
point
sound
south
wide
members
exercise
flowers
set
found
things
heart
cause
site
brother
teacher
live
read
billion
another
distance
written
kept
direction
developed
wall
east
happy
million
world
must
house
turn
west
change
well
twenty
felt

2.1

paragraph
weather
window
third
believe
discovered
simple
gone
paint
new
store
form
cells
matter
follow
perhaps
cannot
good
means
around
line
spell
center
kind
reason
move
forest
sentence
return
instruments
beside
represent
wild
study
back
farmers
sum
difference
product
quotient
remainder
mother
animal
land
still
region
record
summer
general
caterpillar
scratch
modern
adjust
passenger
promise
equal
creak
almost
croak
book
dainty
song

2.2

misty
poor
caution
pest
phrase
life
startle
squirm
alone
centaur
rise
mountain
above
illustrator
footprint
temperature
decorate
country
sometimes
hair
smiled
everything
began
thick
compass
themselves
enough
took
although
splendid
crowded
second
act
attach
sly
talk
wonder
let’s
whirl
someone
africa
borrow
beat
belong
blink
per
fasten
pain
begin
drenched
bed
shell
free
earth
tiny
slippery
count
factors

3.1

drowsy
bashful
hatch
glad
copy
possible
wicked
grin
sibling
shovel
run
verb
sail
polish
ride
young
steep
case
Indian
laughed
soil
appear
bolts
costume
melody
narrow
behave
howl
example
flee
together
lot
filthy
alarm
spiral
selfish
idea
conductor
fight
rolled
middle
tree
dizzy
gather
sneaky
already
construct
every
miss
lively
metal
couldn’t
gold
plant
mask
chat
nation
hear
either
bundle
section
near
rescue
face
divide
sob
celebrate
family
loosen
jealous
crash
chimney
daily
own
cozy
ripe
cut
son
natural
serious
carry
care
paper
broken
cue
within

3.2

being
instead
ache
exactly
hard
speed
buy
age
late
artistic
close
affordable
fraction
eyes
appetite
complain
sleep
seem
eat
below
remove
rusty
grow
glum
stormy
trust
enormous
scale
dictionary
open
add
grab
upset
weed
denied
expensive
story
terrified
lead
jumped
died
basket
side
bear
bend
list
tomb
while
batch
grateful
father
gleaming
dress
light
sprinkle
amount
exclaim
result
yank
leave
cheat
whimper
angle
outside
remain
heap
champion
surprise
dodge
moment
fancy
squeeze
pretend
village
shriek
city
thunder
rapid
iron
striped
don’t
attitude
bell
hat
tug
isn’t
applause
children
honest
cross
spring
freezing

4.1

pattern
cave
hope
mile
group
travel
blush
killed
seed
bottom
hide
important
let
ticket
timid
pounds
restart
silent
cranky
keep
real
bright
quite
curved
repeat
trip
without
dart
consonant
mountains
quiet
apologize
roar
grip
groan
bolt
food
injury
century
exhausted
cabin
atmosphere
floor
it’s
scold
transportation
delighted
giant
hill
something
build
fog
method
rough
left
everyone
obey
deserve
speak
therefore
soon
french
switch
until
pushed
state
knob
hobby
between
surround
collect
fire
i’ll
arrive
road
happened
certain
top
order
astronomy
inches
club
catch
farm
nibble
color
yourself
received
connect
told
gaze
check
wear

4.2

round
award
crowd
slowly
yet
products, goods, services
vowel
himself
strange
whose
draw
team
hold
feel
flood
sent
save
stood
yard
notice
warn
enemy
deep
please
flap
coast
music
wrote
safe
blast
behind
island
lizard
figure
famous
garden
correct
whisper
listen
joined
clear
share
net
thus
calf
maybe
cried
piece
fold
seen
england
decided
bank
fell
pair
control
clean
telescope
trouble
glass
float
morning
horse
produce
course
hunting
rest
step
statement
contain
shouted
filled
zigzag
accident
cents
instrument
fly
single
done
express
visit
desert
seeds
chew
dome
experiment
break
gravity
against
branch
size
low

5.1

finally
mark
wealthy
row
feeling
across
attention
ran
map
students
inside
design
art
mouth
ring
skill
hot
during
shelter
full
discard
bring
quickly
scientists
party
town
covered
wise
early
cram
grain
harm
goal
pause
inform
heal
clue
fame
freeze
badge
pimple
dim
missionary
diet
dumb
rod
march
agree
stick
government
bulb
mall
ban
greed
skiing
poison
stove
image
grew
fact
material
dangerous
flow
gap
ago
stack
explain
didn’t
strong
voice
true
drawing
surface
gift
corner
cloud
since
king
dawn
pulled
dozen
friends
greedy
burning
upon
knew
insect
decimal
nervous
pay
foot
weak
smooth
aware
steady
serve
lost
nonetheless
beach
front
atlas
questions
less
cost
slight
motor
banner
wire
area
carefully
separate
equation
local
minutes
fast
table
plan
fine
waves
fair
sing
dive
suppose
boat
thousands
shape
among
toward
gas
factory
birds
wait
understand
sure
ship
report
captain
human
game
history
reflect
special
brave
bounce
though
else

5.2

include
cage
language
base
red
brain
building
feast
better
built
demolish
excess
leap
tower
ocean
plains
cold
claw
information
scholar
climbed
woman
worry
strand
heavy
herd
common
ground
damp
pack
choose
president
least
increase
half
english
invent
class
measure
dash
tremble
object
become
doubt
became
bare
wheels
continued
shiver
engine
core
couple
business
stars
week
peak
numeral
brought
nothing
touch
reached
uncle
symbols
however
rumor
evening
inasmuch (as)
force
curious
heat
career
system
valley
dust
flock
spray
robber
practice
lonely
remember
luxury
warm
heard
calm
rock
frighten
leader
difficulty
best
gum
cheer
key
support
universe
stream
bit
usually
fish
parade
balance
money
note
cliff
stand
proof
you’re
pale
machine
complete
cool
shown
street
today
shy
easy
several
search
unit
war
power
caught
settle
itself
fuel
mention
fresh
planet
plane
straight
period
person
able
direct
space
wood
seal
field
circle
lady
board
besides
hours
passed
known
whole
similar
underline

6.1

afraid
absorb
british
seat
fear
stretched
furniture
sight
oxygen
coward
rope
clever
yellow
albeit
confess
passage
france
fan
cattle
spot
explore
rather
active
death
effect
mine
create
wash
printed
process
origin
rose
swift
woe
planets
doze
gasp
chief
perform
triumph
value
substances
tone
score
predict
property
movement
harsh
tube
settled
defend
reverse
ancient
blood
sharp
border
fierce
plunge
consider
terms
vision
intend
total
schedule
attract
average
intelligent
corn
dead
southern
glide
supply
convince
send
continent
brief
mural
symbol
crew
chance
suffix
habit
insects
entered
nursery
especially
spread
drift
major
fig
diagram
guess
wit
sugar
predator
science
necessary
moisture
park
ordeal
nectar
fortunate
flutter
gun
forward
globe
misery
molecules
arctic
won’t
actually
addition
washington
cling
rare
lie
steel
pastime
soldiers
chill
accordingly
capital
prevent
solution
greek
sensitive
electric
agreed
thin
provide
indicate
northern
volunteer
sell
tied
triangle
action
opposite
shoulder
imitate
steer
wander
except
match

6.2

prepared
journey
trade
delicate
arrived
track
cotton
hoe
furnish
exciting
view
grasp
level
branches
privilege
limit
wrong
enable
ability
various
moreover
spoil
starve
dollars
digest
advice
sense
accuse
pretty
wasn’t
industry
adopt
loyal
suggested
blow
treasure
cook
adjective
doesn’t
wings
tools
crops
loud
smell
frail
wisdom
fit
expect
ahead
lifted
deed
device
weight
gradual
respect
interesting
arrange
particular
compound
examine
cable
climate
division
individual
talent
fatal
entire
advantage
opponent
wouldn’t
elements
column
custom
enjoy
grace
theory
suitable
wife
shoes
determine
allow
marsh
workers
difficult
repeated
thrill
position
born
distant
revive
magnificent
shop
sir
army
struggled
deal
plural
rich
rhythm
rely
poem
company
string
locate
church
mystify
elegant
led
actual
responsible
japanese
huge
fun
meat
observe
swim
office
chart
avoid
factories
block
called
experience
win
crumple
brilliant
located
pole
bought
conditions
sister
details
primary
survey
truck
recall
disease
radio
rate
scatter
decay
signal
approach
launch

7.1

capture
remark
western
outcome
risk
current
bold
compare
resident
ambition
arrest
furthermore
desire
confuse
accurate
disclose
considerable
contribute
calculate
baggage
noble
benefit
orchard
shabby
content
precious
manufacture
dusk
afford
assist
demonstrate
instant
concentrate
sturdy
severe
blend
vacant
weary
carefree
host
limb
pointless
prepare
inspire
shallow
chamber
vast
ease
attentive
source
frantic
lack
recent
distress
basic
permit
threat
analyze
distract
meadow
mistrust
jagged
prefer
sole
envy
hail
reduce
arena
tour
annual
apparent
recognize
captivity
burrow
proceed
develop
humble
resist
peculiar
response
communicate
circular
variety
frequent
reveal
essential
disaster
plead
mature
appropriate
attractive
request
congratulate
address
destructive
fragile
modest
attempt
tradition
ancestor
focus
flexible
conclude
venture
impact
generosity
routine
tragic
crafty
furious
blossom
concern
ascend
awkward
master
queasy
release
portion
plentiful
alert
heroic
extraordinary
frontier
descend
invisible
coax
entrance
capable
peer
terror
mock
outstanding
valiant
typical
competition
hardship
entertain
eager
limp
survive
tidy
antonym
duplicate
abolish

7.2

evade
debate
dedicate
budge
available
miniature
petrify
pasture
banquet
pedestrian
solitary
decline
reassure
nonchalant
exhibit
realistic
exert
abuse
dictate
minor
monarch
concept
character
strategy
soar
beverage
tropical
withdraw
challenge
kin
navigate
purchase
reliable
mischief
solo
combine
vivid
aroma
spurt
illuminate
narrator
retain
excavate
avalanche
preserve
suspend
accomplish
exasperate
obsolete
occasion
myth
reign
sparse
gorge
intense
revert
antagonist
talon
aggressive
alternate
retire
cautiously
blizzard
require
endanger
luxurious
senseless
portable
sever
compensate
companion
visual
immense
slither
guardian
compassion
escalate
detect
protagonist
oasis
altitude
assume
seldom
courteous
absurd
edible
identical
pardon
approximate
taunt
achievement
homonym
hearty
convert
wilderness
industrious
sluggish
thrifty
deprive
independent
bland
confident
anxious
astound
numerous
resemble
route
access
jubilation
saunter
hazy
impressive
document
moral
crave
gigantic
bungle
prefix
summit
overthrow
perish
visible
translate
comply
intercept
feeble
exult
compose
negative
suffocate
frigid
synonym
appeal
dominate
deplete
abundant
economy
desperate
diligent
commend
boycott
jovial
onset
burden
fixture
objective
siege

8.1

apprehensive
dialogue
prejudice
marvel
eligible
accommodate
arrogant
distinct
knack
deposit
liberate
cumulative
consequence
strive
salvage
chronological
unique
vow
concise
influence
lure
poverty
priority
legislation
significant
conserve
verdict
leisure
erupt
beacon
stationary
generate
provoke
efficient
campaign
paraphrase
swarm
adhere
eerie
mere
mimic
deteriorate
literal
preliminary
solar
soothe
expanse
ignite
verge
recount
apparel
terrain
ample
quest
composure
majority
collide
prominent
duration
pursue
innovation
omniscient
resolute
unruly
optimist
restrain
agony
convenient
constant
prosper
elaborate
genre
retrieve
exploit
continuous
dissolve
dwell
persecute
abandon
meager
elude
rural
retaliate
primitive
remote
blunder
propel
vital
designate
cultivate
loathe
consent
drastic
fuse
maximum
negotiate
barren
transform
conspicuous
possess
allegiance
beneficial
former
factor
deluge
vibrant
intimidate
idiom
dense
awe
rigorous
manipulate
transport
discretion
hostile
clarity
arid
parody
boisterous
capacity
massive
prosecute
declare
stifle
remorse
refuge
predicament
treacherous
inevitable
ingenious
plummet
adapt
monotonous
accumulate
reinforce
extract
reluctant
vacate
hazardous
inept
diminish
domestic
linger
context
excel

8.2

exclude
civic
compact
painstaking
supplement
habitat
leeway
minute
hoax
contaminate
likeness
migration
commentary
extinct
tangible
originate
urban
unanimous
subordinate
collaborate
obstacle
esteem
encounter
futile
cordial
trait
improvises
superior
exaggerate
anticipate
cope
evolve
eclipse
dissent
anguish
subsequent
sanctuary
formulates
makeshift
controversy
diversity
terminate
precise
equivalent
pamper
prior
potential
obnoxious
radiant
predatory
presume
permanent
pending
simultaneously
tamper
supervise
perceived
vicious
patronize
trickle
stodgy
rant
oration
preview
species
poised
perturb
vista
wince
yearn
persist
shirk
status
tragedy
trivial
snare
vindictive
wrath
recede
peevish
rupture
unscathed
random
toxic
void
orthodox
subtle
resume
sequel
upright
wary
overwhelm
perjury
uncertainty
prowess
utmost
throb
pluck
pique
vengeance
pelt
urgent
substantial
robust
sullen
retort
ponder
whim
saga
sham
reprimand
vocation
assimilate
dub
defect
accord
embark
desist
dialect
chastise
banter
inaugurate
ovation
barter
muse
blasé
stamina
atrocity
deter
principal
liberal
epoch
preposterous
advocate
audacious
dispatch
incense
deplore
institute
deceptive
component
subside
spontaneous
bonanza
ultimate
wrangle
clarify
hindrance
irascible
plausible
profound
infinite

9.1

stance
vie
instill
exceptional
avail
strident
formidable
rebuke
enhance
benign
perspective
tedious
aloof
encroach
memoir
mien
desolate
inventive
prodigy
staple
stint
fallacy
grope
vilify
recur
assail
tirade
antics
recourse
clad
jurisdiction
caption
pseudonym
reception
humane
ornate
sage
ungainly
overt
sedative
amiss
convey
connoisseur
rational
enigma
fortify
servile
fastidious
contagious
elite
disgruntled
eccentric
pioneer
abet
luminous
era
sleek
serene
proficient
rue
articulate
awry
pungent
wage
deploy
anarchy
culminate
inventory
commemorate
muster
adept
durable
foreboding
lucrative
modify
authority
transition
confiscate
pivotal
analogy
avid
flair
ferret
decree
voracious
imperative
grapple
deface
augment
shackle
legendary
trepidation
discern
glut
cache
endeavor
attribute
phenomenon
balmy
bizarre
gullible
loll
rankle
decipher
sublime
rubble
renounce
porous
turbulent
heritage
hover
pithy
allot
minimize
agile
renown
fend
revenue
versa
gaunt
haven
dire
doctrine
intricate
conservative
exotic
facilitate
bountiful
cite
panorama
swelter
foster
indifferent
millennium
gingerly
conscientious
intervene
mercenary
citadel

9.2

feasible
teem
pang
vice
tycoon
succumb
capacious
onslaught
excerpt
eventful
forfeit
crusade
tract
haggard
susceptible
exemplify
ardent
crucial
excruciating
embargo
disdain
apprehend
surpass
sporadic
flustered
languish
conventional
disposition
theme
plunder
ignore
project
complaint
title
dramatic
delivery
litter
experimental
clinic
arrogance
preparation
remind
atomic
occasional
conscious
deny
maturity
closure
stressed
translator
animate
observation
physical
further
gently
registration
suppress
combination
amazing
constructive
allied
poetry
passion
ecstasy
mystery
cheerful
contribution
spirit
failed
gummy
commerce
prove
disagreement
raid
consume
embarrass
preference
migrant
devour
encouragement
quote
mythology
destined
destination
illuminating
struggle
accent
ungrateful
giggle
approval
confidence
expose
scientist
operation
superstitious
emergency
manners
absolutely
swallow
readily
mutual
bound
crisp
orient
stress
sort
stare
comfort
verbal
heel
challenging
advertisement
envious
sex
scar
astonish
basis
accuracy
enviable
alliance
specific
chef
embarrassed
counter
tolerable
sympathetic
gradually
vanish
informative
amaze
royal
furry
insist
jealousy
simplify
quiver
appreciate

111 Casual Sentences

My name is ____.

What’s your name?

Come here.

Go away.

Let’s go!

Quiet, please.

Sit down.

Stand up.

What is this/that?

It/this/that is a(n) ____.

How many [____] are there?

How long is/was it?

How much longer?

Are we there yet?

What do you want?

Which one would you like?

Open your book.

Close your book.

Get your pencil and paper.

Put your stuff away.

Bring your bag.

I am thirsty/hungry.

Turn on/off the computer/light/TV/____.

What time is it?

Wash the dishes.

Where are we/you going?

What will you do tomorrow?

Go to bed.

Wake up.

Do a good job.

All finished!

Where is the remote control?

Where did I put my phone?

That’s awesome!

Let’s eat.

What’s for dessert?

I need to use the bathroom.

I forgot.

What did you say?

I can’t hear.

Turn up/down the volume.

Slow down.

Speed up.

Be careful.

Think about it.

Open/close the door.

I’m doing my homework.

Pay attention.

Don’t waste time.

Stay focused.

Make/meet new friends.

Nice to see you again.

I hate it/this/that!

I love pizza!

We want chocolate.

Please pass the salt and pepper.

Dunk your cookies in milk.

Get ready.

Hang up your coat.

Cross the street.

Don’t interrupt.

No distractions!

Be respectful.

Pray for rain/sunshine.

It’s a full moon tonight.

It’s hot/cold/windy/nice today.

Let’s go outside.

We have/had a field trip at school.

I need to get my hat.

We’re moving to a new house.

She has a new job.

That’s (not) fair.

Tell the truth.

Don’t lie.

He’s a liar!

I can trust them.

Do your work.

Don’t move.

I need to go shopping.

Let’s sing a song.

May I have some more, please?

Don’t make me tell you again.

Good morning, good afternoon, good evening, and good night.

Fold your clothes.

Do the laundry.

Hang up your coat.

Get going.

Start (____ing).

Stop (____ing).

Catch the ball.

Pick it up.

Run with it.

Put on your shoes.

Get dressed.

Take your shoes off at the door.

Go upstairs/downstairs.

Skip the commercials.

Put it in the refrigerator.

Pause it.

Install the  [____] app.

Let’s ride bikes.

I like to skate.

We went swimming.

I packed my lunch.

I got a present for my birthday!

The battery is dead.

Get the door/phone.

Pizza’s here!

Ring the doorbell.

Look both ways first.

Take this to the table.

Grammar Syllabus

Make constant use of Reading, Memorizing, and Vocabulary resources, as much as possible, probably after Phase 1.

Phase 1: Foundations

Simultaneously learn:

  1. Handwriting
  2. Typing with the 88-Word Hannon
  3. Dot 1: Starting Phonics

Phase 2: Basic Grammar

Read from the Dot series daily while covering each grammar topic. The purpose of this Dot series is not to practice reading every form of English usage, but help students be able to read well and speak properly with the least and briefest amount of practice. Each Dot story should be read multiple times.

Dot 2

Grammar:

  • Articles

Application:

  • Reading Spoken Conversation (111 Casual Sentences)
  • *Reading spoken conversation is not an exercise to understand grammar, but merely to understand the concept that what we say can be written and read. Pedagogically, this is a vital early step in reading skill and vocabulary building.

Dot 3

Grammar:

  • Capitalize: First Word, Names
  • Period & Question Mark
  • *While reading Dot 3, play the game: “Look for the question mark”.
  • Noun-Verb-Adjective
  • Subject-Predicate
  • Nominative Case: Subject, Predicate Nominative, Predicate Adjective

Application:

  • Days
  • Months
  • Basic colors
  • Numbers

Dot 4

Grammar:

Application:

  • Relative days/dates/time (yesterday, next year, in two months, etc.)
  • Time of day
  • Intermediate colors
  • Hundred, thousand, million
  • Plus, minus, times, divide
  • Times tables through 13
  • Basic “tens” addition rules (5+8 will have 3, etc.)

Dot 5

Grammar:

  • Yes/No Questions
  • WH Questions (WH Q&A)
  • Contractions
  • Simple Positive/Negative Statements
  • Suffixes (modifiers: comparative, superlative, adverbial)
  • Helping Verbs
  • Suffixes (verbs)
  • Verbs (303 Verbs)
  • Verb forms & patterns (Verb Spellings)

Application:

  • Scheduling conversation
  • Frequency (often, frequently, rarely, never, always, usually, etc.)
  • Discussing colors (matching & clashing, cool/warm, pastels, saturated)
  • Discussing basic Math (arithmetic) & story problem English

Dot 6

Grammar:

  • Modifiers (202 Adjectives)
  • Clauses (one verb each)
  • Dependent vs Independent Clauses
  • Object

Application:

  • Discussing roads, cities, and travel
  • Travel methods
  • Basic geography terms (mountains, rivers, islands, lakes, valleys, volcanoes)
  • Basic letter

Dot 7

Grammar:

  • Adjectives & Adverbs (Adjective Spellings)
  • Prefixes (negation)
  • Accusative Case: Direct Object
  • Dative Case: Indirect Object
  • Personal Pronouns
  • Oblique Case

Application:

  • Countries, oceans, continents, which is where

Dot 8

Grammar:

  • Pronouns & Demonstratives
  • Personal Pronouns (review) (Grammar 0.0 – Introduction)
  • Reflexive Pronouns (Pronouns)
  • Genitive Case: Substance, Origin
  • Dative Case: Involvement, Means
  • Instrumental Case
  • Locative Case

Application:

  • Planets
  • Types of life (plant, bacteria, fungus, mammal, reptile, insect, arachnid)
  • Computer coding talk

Dot 9

Grammar:

  • Interrogative vs Relative Pronouns
  • WH Clauses (WH – Relative and Interrogative Clauses)
  • Ablative vs Lative Case
  • Commas: 3+ item lists, strikable phrases
  • Logical sentences & conjunctions
    (notwithstanding, albeit, nonetheless, anyhow, therefore, accordingly, etc.)

Application:

  • Writing addresses

Phase 3: Noun Case

Noun Case
Noun Case: Nominative, Vocative
Noun Case: Accusative, Dative
Noun Case: Ablative, Lative
Noun Case: Locative, Instrumental
Noun Case: Genitive
Noun Case: Oblique
Genitive Measurables (a bottle of, a cup of, a piece of)

Phase 4: Style & Verbs

Verbs: Linking vs Action
Verbs: Helping vs Main
Various Letter Styles
Verb Tense & Mood
Capitalization
Punctuation

Notes:

For Teachers:

This is not a comprehensive curriculum, but a “fast track”. This covers a “useful smattering” widely-applicable concepts on a semi-deeper level.

Vocabulary lists are not comprehensive, but meant to help a student understand literature on a given skill level, thus exposing the student to further vocabulary not covered.

Noun Case is meant to help students become familiar with how words are used, also to prepare students for studying other languages where case manifests in the form of spelling. This is “Noun Case in use”, not “spelling”, and serves as a pedagogical method, not content for core curriculum examination. If successful, proper use of English should improve overall, which is where the results would be seen in examination.

The “Read with Dot” series’ “Dot 6” should be understandable by about third grade. However, any book in the series could be revisited as a means to practice any specific language usage pattern as needed. This series is not comprehensive, but intended to rehearse certain language pattern skills to empower students to read competently at a given skill level, and, in reading other so-empowered literature, the student would thus develop a well-rounded skill set at that level.

For ESL:

Remember TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, AKA ‘English only’) is for conversation and real life practice. This requires a brainstorming/spontaneous-creative mind to recognize ESL-able materials with which to teach by example with any and every object in the situation. TESOL often requires props, AKA “realia”, to fuel conversation. Furniture, near/far locations, clothing, body parts, eating, exercises, demonstrable “Simon Says”, and charades are always available options for TESOL conversation if there are no other nearby items.

Constant TESOL conversation invention is a necessary skill to develop for a TESOL “culture” environment to thrive. Examples of TESOL personalities in mass media could be described as “Mr. Bean” or the “Swedish Chef” from the Muppets in communication style. Communicate ideas firstly without using words; use repetition both for memory and for students to be able to observe multiple times to help them understand the demonstrated concept.

TEFL, by contrast, views English as the “foreign” language. L1 (native language) can be used in TEFL, not TESOL; TESOL uses only L2 (second language) by definition. Typing, Writing, and Phonics can be used as resource realia for TESOL conversation, but should not be forced inasmuch as students are distracted by TESOL. An example cloud be saying, “Write A,” then writing the letter “A”, doing this multiple times until the student understands. But, the primary purpose of Typing, Writing, and Phonics should be those topics. Insert TESOL repetition and demonstration in as much as it does not distract. Grammar, by contrast, should be demonstrated via TESOL as much as possible, but L2 will be necessary for grammar, if for no other reason than to reflect on the concepts.

Adjective Spellings

Adjectives → Adverbs, Comparatives & Superlatives

Doc on Google Drive | Simple HTML

Adj. → Adv. (+ly)

(ADJ) +ly (ADJ) y → i +ly (ADJ) le → ly
bad → badly angry → angrily ample → amply
loud → loudly busy → busily feeble → feebly
smart → smartly happy → happily gentle → gently
quiet → quietly friendly → friendlily simple → simply
slow → slowly noisy → noisily terrible → terribly

Adj. → Comp. (+er)
Only if not using more _

(ADJ) e +r / +er (ADJ) y→i +er (ADJ) DD +er
(short vowel)
quick → quicker sly → slier big → bigger
long → longer happy → happier fat → fatter
slow → slower friendly → friendlier clean → cleaner
nice → nicer messy → messier mean → meaner

Adj. → Supl. (+est)
Only if not using most _

(ADJ) e +st / +est (ADJ) y→i +est (ADJ) DD +est
(short vowel)
quick → quickest sly → sliest big → biggest
long → longest happy → happiest fat → fattest
slow → slowest friendliest → friendliest clean → cleanest
nice → nicest messy → messiest mean → meanest

Verb Spellings

Plural & Tense

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Continuous Present +ing Simple Present +s Simple Past +ed (regular)
(VERB) +ing
(long vowel)
(VERB) +s (VERB) +ed
eat → eating like → likes talk → talked
see → seeing see → sees add → added
walk → walking walk → walks chew → chewed
push → pushing run → runs earn → earned
rain → raining rain → rains fax → faxed
(VERB) e +ing (VERB) {s sh ch x o} +es (VERB) e +d
live → living cross → crosses fence → fenced
bake → baking fish → fishes gaze → gazed
come → coming hatch → hatches name → named
hide → hiding box → boxes pause → paused
write → writing go → goes taste → tasted
(VERB) ie→y +ing (VERB) y→i +es (VERB) y→i +ed
die → dying carry → carries carry → carried
tie → tying study → studies study → studied
lie → lying try → tries try → tried
vie → vying fly → flies fly → flied
belie → belying verify → verifies verify → verified
(VERB) DD +ing
(short vowel)
(VERB) {ay ey oy uy} +s (VERB) DD +ed
(short vowel)
chat → chatting play → plays wrap → wrapped
shop → shopping portray → portrays mop → mopped
stem → stemming obey → obeys chat → chatted
swim → swimming enjoy → enjoys plan → planned
win → winning buy → buys zip → zipped

Letter to ‘Lundenary’

THE SCHOOLMASTER’S ABROAD.

The following singular letter has been received at our post
office, via Liverpool, and is superscribed “The
Honbl.[Honourable?] Post-master, County Town of Londonderry,
Ireland.” Perhaps some of our rustic genealogists will be
able to throw light on the subject of it :-
“July the 9th 1833 to the bon excelency [excellency?] post
master in Ireland Lundendary [Londonderry?] sir my father was
a solger [soldier?] under his mageasty [majesty?] georg
[george?] the king in the ould [old?] french war and my
father was taken prisner [prisoner?] by the indians and
french sixteen taken prisner [prisoner?] wen [when?] my
father was and all tamehoet [tomahawked?] and sculpt
[scalped?] saive [save?] my father onley [only?] and was a
prisner [prisoner?] for six yeares [years?] and made his
escape from them to new jersy state [New Jersey?] sussex
county and theare [there?] maried [married?] to Catherine
M’gregory the dauter[daughter?] of edwart [Edward?] M’gregory
and that James M’Lellon my father dyed [died?] wen [when?] I
was thirteen yeares [years?] of age: a few yeares [years?]
ago a cosen [cousin?] of mine staited [stated?] to me that
theare [there?] was left to my father by my grand father in
Ireland that tere [there?] was left sevin [seven?] hundred
ahd [and?] fifty pounds sterleng [sterling?] wich [which?]
was redy [ready?] at any time for me wen [when?] send [sent?]
for! but john M’Cue came presint [present?] wold [would?] not
tell wear [where?] or wat [what?] my grand fathers name ware
[were?was?] or wat [what?] county he came from nor sufer
[suffer?] his wife to tell me any thing but by the best
account I can git [get?] my grand father were was Moses
M’Lellon the county of Lundendary [Londonderry?] in the
parish of mahhenarm [?] the parish books will corect
[correct?] all I imploied [employed?] one Edward fetcher to
bring the money from Ireland all the sadisfaction
[satisfaction?] he would give me was swearing by —- that
he sent a letter to the recorder of all the wils [wills?] in
the county of lundenary [Londonderry?] also sent a letter to
his agint [agent?] with a deposition inclosed [enclosed?] in
a letter the proof of my are ship all so stop all prsedings
[proceedings?] for me sir thou the dificultys [difficulties?]
I laber [labour?] under I will give you one half of all
please send an answer wats [whats?] the luck or not.
“Moses M’Lellon. “direct your
letters to washington county ohio helpte
township little hook hocking post offis [office?]
(D-rry ur “Moses M’Lellon.

Source: Irish Emigration Database

Countries, Mountains, Waters & Islands

North America

Canada, United States, Greenland, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama

Sierra Nevada, Cascade Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Alaska Range, Appalachian Mountains, Puget Sound, Hudson Bay, Northwest Passages, Baffin Bay, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Cape Cod, Boston Harbor, Carribean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California, Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Niagara Falls, Great Salt Lake, Lake Okeechobee, Mississippi River

South America

Andean Mountains, Columbia, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Venezuela, Paraguay, Uruguay, Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana

Western Europe

Alps, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Great Britain, Ireland, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Monaco, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark, Iceland, Luxembourg, Belgium

Cyrillic Europe

Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Serbia, Czech, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, Croatia

Middle East

Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran

Central Asia

Karakoram Mountains, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka

Bosphorus Strait, Dardanelles Strait, Caucasus Mountains, Ural Mountains, Aegean Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Ural River

Chinese Empire, Southeast Asia & Australia

Himalayas, Kunlun Mountains, Great Dividing Range, Mongolia, Tibet, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand

Africa

Atlas Mountains, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Western Share, Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland

American Islands

Bermuda, Caribbean Sea, The Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Virgin Islands, Anguilla, St. Kitts & Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, Monsterrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Barbados, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Aruba, Curaçao, Falkland Islands, Galapagos Islands

Expert

quixotic
aberrant
vouchsafe
accretion
extraneous
polemically
amorphous
inimical
contravene
ostensibly
truculent
consonant
permutation
carom
consummate
foible
amenable
genuflections
lechery
bequeathed
clairvoyant
propensity
precarious
émigré
fomenting
prudish
lascivious
repast
cravenness
vistas
repartee
insatiable
regicide
victuals
arduous
haranguing
banal
opulence
reticent
vagaries
odious
rancor
ingratiate
taciturnity
titillate
duplicity
notoriety
veneration
adroitly
pyrrhic
explicate
visceral
perfidy
gregarious
obsequious
belie
niggling
gadfly
importunities
invective
petulance
nolens volens
impugning
largesse
avarice
remonstrated
laurels
dote
regaled
cajoled
attune
austerity
zeitgeist
tenuous
hubris
demagogues
iconoclastic
verisimilitude
verisimilitudinal
verisimilitudinous
hemorrhaging
stalwart
perspicacious
emoluments
subjugated
precipitous
sagacious
vacuities
vicarious
sorties
fissures
arbiter
deferential
feign
incontrovertible
perspicuous
plight
promenades
debutantes
communiqué
salaam
feted
convalesced
cloying
dole
assuage
cantos
boudoir
racy
wile
tryst/trysts
nefarious
tepid
ardor
decadent
inveterately
virility
exuded
lithe
stricture
libido
abysmal
amour
dolt
luster
plebiscites
rubric
albeit
ineffectualness
fatuousness
ailing
bespeak
educe
exigencies
nascent
writ
tantamount
pathology
proscription
compendiums
belied
capricious
rescinded
idiosyncratically
repository
preeminence
delimits
opine
vilipend
pecksniffian
onerous
terse
monolithic
impetuous
myopia
cavalierly
obviate
prognostication
bloviate
relegate
lugubrious
popinjay
riposte
confabulation
trenchant
lackluster
pernicious
bereft
auspices
daunted
abate
punitive
woolgathering
proxy
motley
ephemeral
détente
pundit
skyey
baseness
virtuoso
partied
egregiously
reconnoiter
respite
anachronism
throes
disaggregate
cloistered
fiefdom
exude
recalcitrance
deft
daubed
apparitions
temerity
besought
slipshod
stoical
flout
impending
tumult
axiom
disquiet
ruse
equanimity
inauspicious
tangential
modicum
beneficent
magnanimous
reverie
elucidates (verb)
betwixt
fratricide
prattle
despondent
aspirants
russet
acolytes
abject
harangue
grenadiers
façade
vestibule
effusive
decadence
feckless
ignominious
armistice
bivouacked
exact (verb)
impunity
fledging
gait
egregious
chagrin
cowed
coterie
insidious
self-aggrandizement
indemnification
adroit
attrition
alluring
inviolable
impudent
impertinent
bellicose
redound
conflate
amicable
titular
equidistant
dutifully
vagrancies
immanent
eminent
province
providence
clairvoyance
fatwa
insular
blinkered
vitriolic
apparition
furtive
misogyny
ancillaries
fervor
affable
apropos
chagrined
resplendent
vexing
obfuscating
diurnal
glib
fete
penchant
confluence
vicissitude
addled
exemplar
repudiation
tawdry
prurient
ancillary
panoply
laudation
excoriate
mealy-mouthed
accede
shambolic
deracination
junket
brouhaha
intransigence
sortie
caveat
threadbare
louche
sesquipedalian
preternatural

Days, Months, Numbers, Shapes, Measures

Days

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Months

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Numbers

Zero

One

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six

Seven

Eight

Nine

Ten

Eleven

Twelve

Thirteen

Fourteen

Fifteen

Sixteen

Seventeen

Eighteen

Ninteen

Twenty

Thirty

Forty

Fifty

Sixty

Seventy

Eighty

Ninty

Hundred

Thousand

Million

Billion

Trillion

Quadrillion

Qintillion

Hexillion

Heptillion

Octillion

Nonillion

Decillion

Ordinals

First

Second

Third

Fourth

Fifth

Sixth

Seventh

Eighth

Ninth

Tenth

Eleventh

Twelfth

Thirteenth

Fourteenth

Sixteenth

Seventeenth

Eighteenth

Nineteenth

Twentieth

Thirtieth

Fortieth

Fiftieth

Sixtieth

Seventieth

Eightieth

Ninetieth

Hundredth

Thousandth

Millionth

Billionth

Trillionth

Quadrillionth

Qintillionth

Hexillionth

Heptillionth

Octillionth

Nonillionth

Decillionth

Priorities

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Quaternary

Quinary

Senary

Septenary

Octonary

Nonary

Denary

Lundenary *&

Duodenary

Shapes

Circle

Oval

Square

Rhombus

Diamond

Parallelogram

Triangle

Rectangle

Pentagon

Hexagon

Heptagon

Octagon

Nonagon

Decagon

Star

Heart

Club

Spaid

Arrow

Line

Plane

Cube

Pyramid

Cylinder

Cone

Sphere

Years

Decade

Score

Century

Millennium

Billennium

Quarterly

Semiannual

Seasonal

Perennial

Annual

Biannual

Centennial

Bicentennial

Tricentennial

Millennial

Billennial

Trillennial

English Measures

ounce – oz

pound – lb = 16 oz

ton = 2,000 lb

teaspoon – t

Tablespoon – T = 3 t

Cup – C = 16 T | 8 oz

pint – pt = 16 oz | 2 C

quart – qt = 32 oz | 4 C | 2 pt

gallon – gal = 128 oz | 16 C | 8 pt | 4 qt

inch – in ”

foot – ft ‘ = 12 in

yard – yd = 3 ft | 36 in

mile = 1,760 yd | 5,280 ft

Metric Measures

gram

liter

meter

Metric Prefixes
exa- E 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1018
peta- P 1,000,000,000,000,000 1015
tera- T 1,000,000,000,000 1012
giga- G 1,000,000,000 109
mega- M 1,000,000 106
kilo- k 1,000 103
hecto- h 100 102
deca- da 10 101
gram
liter
meter
g
l
m
1 100
deci- d 0.1 10−1
centi- c 0.01 10−2
milli- m 0.001 10−3
micro- μ 0.000001 10−6
nano- n 0.000000001 10−9
pico- p 0.000000000001 10−12
femto- f 0.000000000000001 10−15
atto- a 0.000000000000000001 10−18

*& Notes on “lundenary”

There is no priority number for eleven. “Lundenary” is an invention of PinkWrite to fill this gap, built on the word “lunar” from “moon”, based on the idea of “the solo in orbit”. On research, the word appeared in all lowercase as a misspelling of “Londonderry” in an 1833 letter to Ireland, purportedly concerning one’s own whereabouts, a schoolmaster. In circumstance, the word is all too fitting, misspelled from a missing schoolmaster filling a gap for a word that never existed because it was never used. The “u” is long.

Reference: What comes after primary, secondary, tertiary?

The sequence continues with quaternary, quinary, senary, septenary, octonary, nonary, and denary, although most of these terms are rarely used. There’s no word relating to the number eleven but there is one that relates to the number twelve: duodenary.

Read with Dot – About

Introduction

This began as a project in Taiwan. I had so many people asking for English lessons that I wouldn’t have had time for anything else. So, I started this, using Taiwan as my laboratory, with the hope that I could create a concise teaching tool that would empower anyone to learn, with the help of any eleven year old native English speaker.

Initially, it began as a small project, but kept snowballing to a point of being semi-comprehensive. Eventually, it only made sense to write a print edition.

PinkWrite was first intended as a CMS (Content Management System) project. I wanted a language-learning aspect of PinkWrite to help to legitimize the writing CMS as a competent language authority. Too many web & software tools are written for writers by people who only have semi-savvy writing knowledge. The same could be said for other industries with software and online platforms. Once the two needs overlapped, for PinkWrite to teach English and for Taiwanese to learn English, this series took form.

When I first released this series in print, a pre-beta version of the PinkWrite CMS was available through the website. That text editor only counted words and saved a file—that’s it. I had written that software to that point to standardize my word counts for the recent book, Watch Stand Pray 365. That made, PinkWrite a bona fide language resource, for writing and teaching.

All material in this series is available online, downloadable in various formats, and in print. The printed books are drop-proof, semi-water and -vomit proof, less expensive to replace if broken, better for young eyes to read, and has space for making notes. This is intended to empower a teacher working with a student. This will not work for a student trying to study alone. This is a collected reading series, beginning with phonics, followed by small stories with helpful, progressive, snowballing patterns for grammar and vocabulary. The main character is named Dot.

This is not intended to be a complete or comprehensive reading curriculum. Instead, it is a complete fast track, teaching core concepts, emphasizing essential content, and delivering through quality rather than quantity. A student who reads these stories multiple times and reviews the phonics charts while doing so can develop a deep understanding of the core components of English, allowing supplemental readings to be more self-instructive.

 

Teaching Instructions

Basic instructions for use: Read, have the student read, drill, pop drill, and remember the value of repeating repetitive repetition. Nothing good comes without practice.

Symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet appear in some places. Don’t let this intimidate the teacher or the student. If you don’t read IPA, that’s fine. But, some familiarity with the IPA will prove useful and the places they appear in this series will help anyone get to know them.

This is not intended to be a complete curriculum for phonics, only a core booster for beginners, whether native speakers or ESL students of any age, and perhaps dyslexics. At some point, in future editions, some words or sections may be added if formal school curricula so needs.

This series is meant as an in-the-bag companion for other tools available at the PinkWrite website.

The first set of Vowel Words, having long and short vowels, has all “real” words, though they may not all be common. These words were selected to help familiarize the student with how long and short vowels combine with different consonants, adding other related vowel sounds from time to time. A supplemental writing sheet can be downloaded and printed from write.pink called “24-line phonics writing sheet”. The words on that sheet are not exactly the same as the words in the Vowel Words section of this Starting Phonics; this is on purpose. The words on that sheet should help a student expand vocabulary and phonics skills while practice writing, reading, hearing, and pronouncing each word. That writing sheet is only intended to be used after the student has been writing the basic alphabet. The sheet should be used as a kind of pop-drill with correction and speaking while writing, first in the starting consonant word groups, later as a whole sheet. This implements all three learning styles at once: kinetic, audio, and visual. Further information is available on the website.

The website includes a first and second grade handwriting curriculum, from print to cursive, along with other teachings about writing and font styles. This “24-line phonics writing sheet” is part of that handwriting curriculum.

The website also includes the 88-Hanon Typing App, a simple .html page that can be saved as an offline website. This includes a list of words with common letter combinations for typing speed practice, a keyboard finger chart, and a cheat-proof, no-paste, no-cut, no-drag, but copy-able typing box for teachers to use with students. It also includes alternate pages, one for teachers to use a custom typing list and another for a large body of text where the cheat-proof box is resizable.

Both the writing and typing tools at write.pink are intended to be used by the student when starting this series as early as five years old for writing and typing on a smaller keyboard, three if only previewing this series with help.

Any student who can read the long and short Vowel Words should also have been prepared to write and type those words. All the needed teaching tools are on the website. Reviewing the Starting Phonics for 30 minutes, four days a week should prepare a student for the rest of the series in as little as two months.

After the Vowel Words comes More Words, also with important sounds to learn for a good phonics foundation. Then, Combination Sounds help practice the concept that English words are build like a plumber puts together pieces of pipe. This also contains “difficult” sounds for practice. It’s contrasting-repetition is an effective technique teaching method.

Later, Other Rules covers most of the sounds a student needs to know to be able to begin reading. This section is not for drilling a student on the pronunciation of each word, only the sound of each short list. The words in these short lists should be read by the teacher each time they are reviewed. Other Rules should be reviewed four days a week for about two weeks or more. It’s fine if the student has only a small understanding of this section.

Toward the end are some long lists of words with “th” sounds and other words with odd spellings, given their pronunciation. These can be previewed quickly for early beginners, but revisited from time to time and as needed, while the student progresses in the series.